Free families to statist societies and back again Familias gratuitas a sociedades estatistas y viceversa Libérer les familles des sociétés d’état et inversement Famílias livres para sociedades estatistas e vice-versa Freie familien zu statistischen gesellschaften und wieder zurück


Philip E Jacobson

What would families be like in a free nation? This question would take at least several volumes to explore thoroughly. And there is really no definitive set of answers. The biggest difference would not be that something new would be present, but rather that something would be absent — the influence of the state. The state’s interference in society encourages some kinds of family behaviours and discourages others. In the absence of the state it is likely that some entirely new family traditions would emerge, but also that the previously established ones would continue to exist, including some which are currently rare. Overall the choices made by individuals in this matter would probably be more diverse and open than is the case in statist societies.

Rather than trying to provide a complete list of the alternatives, I will discuss how the history of human families indicates a wide variety of possibilities for family structure, then examine the state’s historical relationship to families. In doing so I will be working under the thesis that in statist societies the family is in direct competition with the state for the loyalty and the control of the resources of individuals. Finally, I’ll explore themes for just a few of the many modern opportunities that a free nation might offer families.

Contemporary discussion of the politics of the family often involves a notion of “family values,” or what is good for “the family.” In such discussions, “the family” is often held to be the basic social unit of civilised society. It is, however, a very specific kind of family which is being referred to, a family with one adult male and one adult female, who have a state-licensed marriage, and who are raising two or three children. The man and the woman typically have or have had a sexual relationship and are typically the biological parents of the children. The members of the family live in a single residence. They may or may not have blood kin nearby. But most of their social interactions are with persons with whom they are not related.

It is often assumed in discussions of social problems, that a society which fosters this kind of family is desirable and that this kind of family is the most natural one for humanity. But these notions are clearly wrong. In the natural history of humanity the family mentioned above is a very recent phenomenon. Variations on the human biological type (characterised by, among many other things, the use of stone or more advanced tools) are thought to have existed for at least 2 million years. These, our ancestors, lived for most of that time in hunter-gatherer bands, in a social structure with very different characteristics from the “modern family” ideal.

Mankind’s earliest family structure


The hunter-gatherer band was certainly a community, though usually a small one. It would typically be composed of fewer than 100 individuals of both sexes and a wide range of ages. It would roam the countryside in search of small to medium game, typically hunted by the adult males, and very small game, insects and edible plants, typically gathered by females and children. This was the most significant division of labor, producing in some ways separate environments and subcultures for men and women. Men might hunt individually or in groups. But when they cooperated, leadership was not based on official rank, but rather on one hunter proposing a group hunt and recruiting others to follow him. None were compelled to follow, however, and different hunts might have different leaders based on the relative charisma of different individuals at different times. Women needed even less coordination. With them leadership would be more a matter of the wiser or more skilled giving advice as the need arose.

Evidence suggests that there were few if any persons we today would call “old” (over 50 years). Care of children was primarily the job of each child’s biological mother, but all children were nurtured to some extent by all adults, especially the women. For most of humanity’s existence the notion of fatherhood was non-existent, as the relationship between sex and pregnancy wasn’t known. It is impossible to say when this discovery was made, but even after the notion of paternity was established there was a tendency for a child’s kinship to be traced primarily or only through its mother as the biological father’s identity was still doubtful. However, at any one time, a child’s mother might have a special adult male friend within the band who had regular sex with her and who shared food with her and any small children she might have. This man’s association with the mother would benefit her younger children, though he may not have been their biological parent. These smaller groups of individuals would be roughly approximate to the modern notion of “households.” Each child would almost certainly know who was its mother, thus also who were its mother’s other children, thus also who (on its mother’s side) were its aunts, uncles, etc. If these persons were nearby, a certain affinity between such blood kinsmen would exist. Most of the adults would have been raised together and would to a large extent be raising their own children together.

However, blood kin (on the mother’s side), while known, might not stay with the band. During most of the period when humans organised only as hunter-gatherer bands, humanity had not yet filled up the available habitable space. The total number of humans on earth rose extremely slowly. Great risk from disease or animal attack kept most children from reaching adulthood. Many women died in childbirth. Men could be injured in confrontations with animals. Getting enough food was not the biggest problem. But there would be times when the food in some specific area might be a little thin, motivating the band to split into two or more groups and go separate ways. None were likely to starve, but individuals might lose contact with relatives. Loss of a group member might also occur when different bands met. Ordinarily they could afford a reasonable degree of cordiality. And as they went their separate ways, each band might lose a few members to the other. Sometimes, but not always, this would involve fresh sexual relationships, thus diversifying the gene pools of each group as is the case with great apes to this day.

“Anatomically modern” humans are thought to have emerged between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago. Yet most if not all humans continued to live as hunter-gatherers until at least 10,000 years ago. The older and longer period is referred to as the “Palaeolithic” (or Old Stone Age). The newer period is called the “Neolithic” (or New Stone Age, covering the period up to the first use of metal). Only in the Neolithic did some communities begin developing other means of providing themselves with food. Slowly the number of non-hunter-gatherers increased until the vast majority of cultures were not of that type (though a few hunter-gatherer communities still exist today). So at a minimum, at least 90% of human history is characterised by social organisation which was very functional but which did not include any institutions which were much like the “modern family” ideal. The hunter-gatherer group was a “family” but by modern standards a fairly large one, with loyalties that were as much socially based as they were biologically based, and which lacked entirely many of today’s “family values.” If there is any such thing as a “natural” family, this is it. But should we expect a re-emergence of this kind of family in a free society? Probably not.

New food sources influence family structure


When people first started associating in patterns other than the hunter-gatherer band, they still did not organise into modern families. During the last part of the Palaeolithic age humans had become especially good hunter-gatherers. They became the dominant predators in most places, much less likely to be attacked by big cats. They’d even formed a partnership with some of the canines. The human population had begun to rise to an extent that in some places it was difficult to feed everyone in the traditional ways.

Three new types of economy emerged — herding, fishing, and plant cultivation. These tended to produce new family patterns each distinct from the others, but none of them like the modern family. Indeed, even within each of the new economic traditions, a great variety of family structure existed. In many instances, the human communities formed were much bigger than hunter-gatherer bands, but this was not always true. There was also a greater tendency for family members to stay in contact, especially when communities settled in definite geographic areas, but this was not always true either.

When larger, more densely packed groups began to come into very regular contact with others, they became less fluid. As bands found it convenient to lay claim to specific farmland, specific herds of animals, or sites especially good for gathering seafood, the notion of group territory became more important. Group membership became more valuable for individuals. The little groupings composed of a woman, her small children, and her mate became true households. The children tended to keep closer contact with one another as adults, to help maintain and exploit common claims to food resources. Hunter-gatherer bands solidified into “clans” with clearer membership traditions based more strictly on blood-kin ties. The notion of a marriage, or lifetime sexual and child-raising commitment between adults of opposite sexes, while not completely unknown to hunter-gatherers at the end of the Palaeolithic period, became very important to Neolithic peoples. Marriage confirmed the association between an adult born into one clan but living in another, and confirmed the clan membership of children born to the union.

In the larger and especially in the settled communities, there was a tendency for some division of labor beyond hunting vs. gathering. Peoples settled in one location could possess more material goods, which created a demand for skilled specialists who provided various goods in trade for food or other goods. These specialists might pass their skills to their children and thus establish family occupations. Additional value to family membership was created when traditional trading relationships formed between clans or between families within clans.

Yet the customs of the Neolithic, including traditions of family structure, varied widely in terms of specifics. The most significant generalisation that can be made about any of them is that they were significantly different from the families of hunter-gatherers. So among the few things that we can say about what is “natural” about the human approach to family structure (as opposed to, say, that of specific species of birds or of other mammals), is that human communities can thrive using a wide variety of family structures. Another thing that can be said is that economics can be very influential in determining what family forms a given human culture will adopt.

The emergence of the state


The concept of the modern family is not just a product of modern economic institutions. It is also a product of thousands of years of interaction with other social institutions, notably the one known as the state. A state is at its core a military institution which claims resources from the individuals in a society in exchange for providing defence from the predatory behaviour of competing military institutions. Individual citizens of a statist society will abide by this relationship either because 1) they are afraid to challenge the military power of “their” state, 2) they fear a rival military power more, or 3) some combination of both. The state is not, however, “natural” to human communities.

It is not clear exactly when the state emerged in the natural history of humanity, nor exactly when the early military institutions which were clearly the ancestors of the modern state should be called “states.” The hunter-gatherer band was not a state. There were few persons in each band, and no special military sub-group existed. When a band was attacked by animals or other humans, any group member capable of providing any kind of defence to the group did so. Often, however, the primary line of defence would be composed of the band’s adolescent and adult males. Such a coordination of armed force was an extension of the hunting patterns used by the males, but would be supplemented by the women and children when they could provide support. This pattern can also be found in other social primates. But while the hunters can be viewed as a subsection of the band as a whole, they were not a separate community in the sense that modern soldiers and police are a separate group within a larger society. There was no clash of loyalty for individuals between “family” and “military unit.” The individual fighter did not have to leave the family to participate in the defence of the community as modern soldiers often do during active military duty.

Neolithic communities, with denser populations and often serious competition for food, modified the Palaeolithic family structures to accommodate their environments. No modern-style military institutions developed in the Neolithic period, but many Neolithic cultures developed new ways to coordinate organised violence. Large military formations formed as warriors from several households combined under one leader. This war chief might hold the position formally and for long periods of time. Clan-sized military units based on a recognition of blood ties (sometimes via adoption, sometimes via marriage) became common among Neolithic peoples. Especially charismatic war chiefs might have been able to assemble several clans into a military alliance to defeat a common rival clan. These alliances would have been easier where the allied clans were thought to be blood kin.

Military and other advantages eventually encouraged associations of clans to form as “tribes,” larger groups speaking a common language and thought to be descended from a common ancestor. Tribes are not completely “natural” to humans, but neither are they completely out of the “natural” Palaeolithic context. Members of hunter-gatherer bands would have known of the existence of other bands which had blood relations to them, which spoke a common language, and which shared many customs. And such related bands would have been distinguishable from yet other bands with differing language and customs, to the extent that such were known. Palaeolithic cultures, however, probably tended to think of “related bands” and “strange bands” rather than in terms of tribes. And they would have had no occasion to think of military units formed from alliances of bands, at least not while all humans were hunter-gatherers.

In the Neolithic, pockets of zero-sum and negative-sum political philosophy emerged on a regular basis, especially in the most densely populated areas. The new food sources could support many more persons on some lands than could hunting and gathering. But not always. Bad weather could hurt agriculture, especially. Sometimes people living in dense settlements found that the only alternative to starvation for their group was to force starvation on their neighbours. This was an ideal climate for the formation of statist attitudes and institutions.

The emergence of the fortified city as a basis of a “civilised” (no longer Neolithic) politics may have signalled the first instance of a statist institution. But there certainly were statist enclaves established in cities. The statists increasingly dominated towns and urban (walled city) areas. The largest military formations were either levies from the male population of the walled cities, or clan-sized raiding parties attacking the cities from herder populations. In the case of the herdsmen, the clans sometimes organised into tribal-sized raiding parties, but this was rare until military-based, patrilineal (descent of the child determined by established paternity) clans emerged to lead them. A man with sons and grandsons to follow him into battle could coordinate them best if he was thought to own their loyalty to him. As hereditary military leader of such a clan a charismatic war chief might recruit most of the warriors from a tribe into a single army.

The rise of “noble” families


The social structure of cities was influenced by overpopulation amongst neighbouring herder groups. In times of strife amongst the herdsmen, wave upon wave of these tribes fell upon the walled cities. Few city-bred generals could defeat herder military formations in the open when the herdsmen were led by a skilled general of their own, though the cities were usually well protected by their walls. But across time herder commanders came to displace the military leaders native to the walled cities. Sometimes as mercenaries, sometimes via hereditary relationships, the descendants of herder clans forged clan-based proprietary claims to most civilised military institutions. In more recent times, this claim came to be termed “nobility.” Noble clans — families often the size of the very largest Palaeolithic gatherings (but no more) — allied with one another to become a tribal-based military institution, which became entrenched as the politically dominant force in many cities. Their generals administered, in addition to their kinsmen, an army composed of conscripts from most of the non-noble families in the city. They began to learn how to use non-military institutions to control this kind of army. They learned to insure that all the military forces of their city (later their empire) remained under noble control. Amongst these non-military institutions were those of religion and law.

Early urban areas often evolved where families from separate clans met, tried to join together as a single separate tribe, and instead developed ethnic aversions to one another. Yet still they might have to make do (if there wasn’t any place better to settle). So they would evolve legal institutions based on custom — but a custom born out of the relations between the separate clans. This system worked so well that it came to be used to form in each city political units from amongst many tribes’ worth of “domesticated” non-noble clans (clans which had given up the hope of military revolt against the nobles). However, it depended on the lack of strong tribes other than the nobles themselves. So other tribal affiliations within the city were reduced to a minimum. The nobles encouraged as best they could customs and laws for the city which were biased against any rival tribal-sized groups. And adjudication of these laws would be kept from the hands of non-noble clansmen and placed in the hands of nobles.

Through most of the period since the rise of the walled cities (sometimes called the “Civilised” period), clans continued to thrive, despite the weakening of most tribal associations in the lands controlled by the cities (which always included a lot of farmland, not just the cities themselves). Tribal affiliations began to be associated in the minds of many with religious affiliations. The nobles came to see that they could not control the non-nobles except by allowing them a certain crippled form of tribal identity — domesticated tribes. Would-be rebel generals in suppressed clans learned that they could operate politically as members of a religious order. Peace was made with many priesthoods from many ethnicities by the nobles in each city. As long as the priests preached against political rebellion, they could attain considerable social prominence.

The politicians: Leaders without noble family connections


But clan-level family activity continued to thrive. In part this may have been because the nobles saw clan-level family as more natural, seeing as they themselves stayed together as a tribe primarily in order to dominate the city. The nobles could also invigorate their own ranks by recruiting, as new noble families, clans without noble standing, from time to time. Eventually this happened to such an extent that leadership in many cities passed to a new class — the politicians. A politician might or might not be noble, despite the fact that hereditary wealth and influence was still a major factor in the politics of the community, but in any case his influence as a politician — that is, the influence of the class of politicians — began to exceed that of the non-politician nobles. Thus individual non-noble politicians could rule over individual noble non-politicians — eventually over individual noble politicians as well — perhaps over all nobles.

In some ways social mobility as politicians gave commoners tremendous opportunities for acquiring power. But such power had to be gained and held within the traditional order of the society. Hereditary power and wealth continued to wield considerable influence. Various institutional assaults were made against rival clans by the politician/noble tribes in association with the priestly tribes. Various programs of religious oppression were sometimes tried as well. Still rebellion was fostered from time to time against the political order by non-noble clans who would form criminal syndicates (thus rival tribes).

Over time the politicians learned how to deal with this in various ways. As powerful potential rivals were recognised, they were encouraged to form additional domesticated tribal associations beyond religion — but not beyond the law. Guilds of merchants, craftsmen, or professional associations were recognised, licensed, and sometimes subsidised by the state. A special domesticated tribe of bureaucrats was formed in many states to administer the details of the state below the highest policies controlled by the politicians. The notion of a corporation was conceived — an economic organisation rivalling the clan or tribe in size, chartered by and answerable to the state rather than by ties of kinship, and able to operate in any field of activity. Individuals who joined these domesticated tribes were encouraged to involve themselves deeply in them, and to develop strong loyalties to them which would rival (and as often as possible push aside) blood-kin loyalties. The politicians began to foster the notion that not only the tribe, but now also the clan, was undesirable. The politicians could not exactly outlaw clans. It wasn’t practical. But they could do things to discourage behaviours which facilitate clan formation.

The final assault on the family


As more and more “self-made” politicians came to prominence without the aid of family connections, there arose amongst them a desire to eliminate the competition from all family-based power. Politicians began to draw support from the state’s bureaucrats and from the members of the “domesticated” clans, especially the occupational groups and corporations (including “non-profit” corporate entities like universities). Eventually the noble families were driven from power in revolutions or via a slow erosion of their privileges. Families whose power derived from inherited wealth were subjected to increased taxation. Laws were instituted to discourage nepotism in the state’s bureaucracy.

The notion of the “ideal family” mentioned above has been used primarily as a way to keep strong clans from forming. Clans (sometimes called “extended families”) are portrayed as “old fashioned” compared to “modern family” patterns (sometimes called the “nuclear family”). In modern times various social forces were encouraged which would weaken all family connections, even between parents and small children. The most significant of these were implemented via the public school system. All citizens were taxed to support state schools, which conscripted any children whose parents chose not to, or simply could not, pay both these taxes and separate fees for private education. Within state schools children were encouraged to prepare themselves for work in a bureaucratic setting, one where their own family had little or no influence. Tax and regulatory advantages given to corporations and tax money given to state enterprises increased the numbers of such jobs greatly and increased the pay of those who worked in them. Meanwhile the increased tax burden required to fund these policies encouraged both parents in most “nuclear families” to work outside the home, giving parents less time and energy to supervise their children. The youngest children are sent to day care. Older children are recruited into sports teams or the audiences for team sports where their tendency to form strong group loyalties is channeled towards state-assigned organisations. As adults, this training encourages individuals to view sports as the only appropriate way to vent a desire for group competitiveness until the state is ready to channel that energy into a war.

In modern industrial societies, the list of state-sponsored domesticated tribes has grown huge. Politicians have begun to see less need for religiously based tribalism and have begun to squeeze religious leaders out of the alliance at the top of the political hierarchy. In a counter-assault against the politicians, many religious leaders have begun to portray themselves as conservative defenders of “the family.” But this can be as misleading as the politician’s effort to divert individuals into state-supported pseudo-family relations. The emphasis on the married couple with children which religious leaders make tends to brush aside clan-sized blood affiliations. Instead, religious leaders want a structure wherein each nuclear family is associated with a clan-sized religious “congregation” which in turn is associated with a larger tribal-sized “denomination.” No religious leader says that clans are bad, but they are quick to assert that loyalty to the traditions of the religious denomination should take precedence over loyalty to blood kin if a conflict between these two occurs. “Nuclear families” are not really the foundation of society in this model; they are just another example of a domesticated family unit. Basically, these “religious conservatives” are less concerned with building strong families than they are with building a political order to rival that of the politicians, based on religious social structures instead of state social structures. And they are not really opposed to statist dictates to individuals or to families. These religious leaders simply wish to reorganise the state so that it is dominated by their own institutions and so that the state is controlled by religiously affiliated politicians rather than the more general purpose politicians who currently dominate most industrial societies.

Thus concludes my discussion of the history of the family and of the influences on family structure which a free nation would not contain — the influences of a state. How would the removal of state influence make a difference?

Families in a free nation


The emergence of a free nation will not simply be a matter of those believing in it choosing to create one. Technological and economic changes must, do and will continue to provide an environment increasingly suitable for stateless communities. We can see this coming since, worldwide, there is less and less the perception that one needs a military protector to keep from starving. And without the support of citizens who feel they must have military protection, it becomes harder for a state to instil the fear necessary to coerce support from everyone else. So voluntary associations, including family associations, will become more common.

It is likely that, in a free nation, some individuals would choose to form families modelled on the idealised nuclear family model currently promoted by politicians in many states. Others might adopt patterns very similar to those of hunter-gatherers. Still others will probably form new clan and tribal-sized family affiliations. We cannot predict just how this will come about. But we can observe how, in the absence of state coercion, many family patterns will appear more attractive than they do now.

Education was originally a very informal process, provided exclusively by the family. In most modern societies the state conscripts a majority of children into a government-run education system. In a free nation, more people would choose to provide their children with family-based education. The family may be organised as a nuclear family, but it might also be an extended family or clan. And if so, the clan might not be limited to blood kin, but might be based on ties of religion, residence, or occupational affiliation. Very closely associated clan-sized communities might even be organised simply to provide quality educational opportunities for the children.

Economic productivity has at many times and places been coordinated by families. Family farms, family businesses, and other traditional family occupations still play a reduced part in modern economies. It would be reasonable to expect more of these in a free nation. Clan-sized family businesses could become very common. Additionally, patterns of financial assistance between family members might become more common than they are in modern statist societies. Many immigrants, especially Asians, with strong clan traditions find it possible to bootstrap themselves to prosperity in Western industrial economies by pooling their savings and investing these in family businesses. Yet Westerners rarely cooperate in this way, especially in low or middle income families, because their family ties are usually too weak to generate the trust required.

New technologies have increased the opportunities for individuals to prosper by conducting professional activities with business associates far away. Until very recently, individuals often needed to relocate their residences far from traditional family roots in order to pursue attractive careers. Now careers in virtual space allow business in the home. Persons wishing to keep in contact with blood kin or wishing to form new families with non-blood ties, can more readily reside with their choice of family members regardless of whom they do business with. For these persons, family businesses might not be appealing, but many family members might dwell within walking distance of one another. Clans based on common lifestyle reinforced by common residence might become popular in this way. The zoning of real estate by the state makes this impractical in most of the residential areas of modern industrial societies but a free nation could be quite different.

In addition to education and housing, clans might benefit from common purchasing for other goods and services. Consider, for instance, a group health plan for a very large family. Sheer numbers might get the group a better insurance rate. Additionally, various home care services could be arranged for more effectively. The care of all age groups would be enhanced by the fact that medical histories were common knowledge and by the fact that home care for incapacitated family members could be provided by having several of the other members take a little spare time each to help out. In modern nation-states laws often give groups with state-issued charters of incorporation favourable treatment which families could enjoy if allowed to negotiate fully voluntary arrangements with health care professionals and insurers.

Lifestyle issues will, of course, be much more open to individual choice in a nation where the state does not use taxes and regulations to favour one set of practices over another. We in America are all familiar with modern controversies over “alternative” marriage practices. But we must also consider as possibilities the many customs followed by human families since hunter-gatherer days. And as we do this we see that there will likely be a lot more innovations as new families emerge to meet the challenges of future times. If you’re interested in stimulating your imagination on this point, just find a book on “kinship traditions” in the anthropology section of a good library. You’ll see that, as I mentioned in the beginning of this essay, the list of possibilities is huge.

The point of a free nation, however, is exactly that — to make the whole list of what has been voluntarily chosen in the past as well as any voluntary arrangement conceived of in the future, available to each individual.

Resources


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Enabling individuals to free themselves. Permitir a las personas liberarse. Permettre aux individus de se libérer. Permitir que os indivíduos se libertem. Einzelpersonen befähigen sich zu befreien.

Copyright Derechos de autor Droits d’auteur Direito autoral Urheberrechte

Privacy Intimidad Intimité Privacidade Privatsphäre

Results Resultados Résultats Resultados Ergebnisse


A definition of freedom Una definición de libertad Une définition de la liberté Uma definição de liberdade Eine definition von freiheit A monopoly on violence Un monopolio sobre la violencia Un monopole sur la violence Um monopólio da violência Ein gewaltmonopol A university built by the invisible hand Una universidad construida por la mano invisible Une université construite par la main invisible Uma universidade construída pela mão invisível Eine universität die von der unsichtbaren hand gebaut wurde Abstain from beans Abstenerse de frijoles S’abstenir de haricots Abster-se de feijão Verzichten sie auf bohnen Activities Activities Activities Activities Activities Against all nations and borders Contra todas las naciones y fronteras Contre toutes les nations et frontières Contra todas as nações e fronteiras Gegen alle nationen und grenzen Against authority Contra la autoridad Contre l’autorité Contra autoridade Gegen autorität Against woman suffrage Contra el sufragio femenino Contre le suffrage des femmes Contra o sufrágio feminino Gegen das frauenwahlrecht Altruism does not exist El altruismo no existe L’altruisme n’existe pas O altruísmo não existe Altruismus gibt es nicht An anti-capitalism anarcho-capitalist Un anticapitalismo anarcocapitalista Un anarcho-capitaliste anti-capitalisme Um anticapitalismo anarcocapitalista Ein antikapitalistischer anarcho-kapitalist An apolitical approach to libertarianism Un enfoque apolítico del libertarismo Une approche apolitique du libertarianisme Uma abordagem apolítica do libertarianismo Eine unpolitische herangehensweise an den libertarismus An experiment Un experimento Une expérience Um experimento Ein experiment An individualist formulation of collectivist property Una formulación individualista de la propiedad colectivista Une formulation individualiste de la propriété collectiviste Uma formulação individualista da propriedade coletivista Eine individualistische formulierung von kollektivistischem eigentum Anarchism and atheism, theism and statism La verdadera historia de la ética Anarchisme et athéisme, théisme et étatisme Anarquismo e ateísmo, teísmo e estatismo Anarchismus und atheismus, theismus und statismus Anarchism as scepticism El anarquismo como escepticismo L’anarchisme comme scepticisme Anarquismo como ceticismo Anarchismus als skepsis Anarchy and the problem of the commons La anarquía y el problema de los bienes comunes L’anarchie et le problème des communs Anarquia e o problema dos bens comuns Anarchie und das problem der commons Anatomy of the state Anatomia del estado Anatomie de l’état Anatomia do estado Anatomie des staates Animator Animator Animator Animator Animator Anthem Himno Hymne Hino Hymne Anyone for war? ¿Alguien para la guerra? Quelqu’un pour la guerre? Alguém para a guerra? Jemand für den krieg? Are anarchists pacifists? ¿Son los anarquistas pacifistas? Les anarchistes sont-ils pacifistes? Os anarquistas são pacifistas? Sind anarchisten pazifisten? Are anarcho-capitalists anti-war? ¿Son los anarcocapitalistas contra la guerra? Les anarcho-capitalistes sont-ils anti-guerre? Os anarcocapitalistas são anti-guerra? Sind anarcho-kapitalistische antikriegsführer? Are there different types of anarcho-capitalism? ¿Existen diferentes tipos de anarcocapitalismo? Existe-t-il différents types d'anarcho-capitalisme? Existem diferentes tipos de anarco-capitalismo? Gibt es verschiedene arten von anarcho-kapitalismus? Aren’t anarchists terrorists? ¿No son los anarquistas terroristas? Les anarchistes ne sont-ils pas des terroristes? Não são anarquistas terroristas? Sind anarchisten keine terroristen? Battleships and schools Acorazados y escuelas Cuirassés et écoles Battleships e escolas Schlachtschiffe und schulen Beyond patriarchy: A libertarian model of the family Más allá del patriarcado: Un modelo libertario de la familia Au-delà du patriarcat: Un modèle libertaire de la famille Além do patriarcado: Um modelo libertário da família Jenseits des patriarchats: Ein libertäres modell der familie Beyond the boss: Protection from business in a free nation Más allá del jefe: Protección de los negocios en una nación libre Au-delà du patron: Protection contre les affaires dans une nation libre Além do chefe: Proteção dos negócios em uma nação livre Jenseits des chefs: Schutz vor geschäften in einer freien nation Books Books Books Books Books Boot Boot Boot Boot Boot Borders Fronteras Les frontières Fronteiras Grenzen Bubblegum money Dinero de chicle Argent bubblegum Dinheiro bubblegum Bubblegum geld But that would be anarchy! ¡Pero eso sería anarquía! Mais ce serait l’anarchie! Mas isso seria anarquia! Aber das wäre anarchie! Caging the beasts Enjaulando a las bestias Mise en cage des bêtes Enjaulando os animais Käfig die bestien Calculator Calculator Calculator Calculator Calculator Calendars Calendars Calendars Calendars Calendars Camera Camera Camera Camera Camera Can anarcho-capitalism work? ¿Puede funcionar el anarcocapitalismo? L'anarcho-capitalisme peut-il fonctionner? O anarco-capitalismo pode funcionar? Kann anarcho-kapitalismus funktionieren? Can voluntaryism fix the machine? ¿Puede el voluntariado arreglar la máquina? Le volontariat peut-il réparer la machine? O voluntariado pode consertar a máquina? Kann freiwilligkeit die maschine reparieren? Capitalism Capitalismo Capitalisme Capitalismo Kapitalismus Capitalism versus statism Capitalismo versus estatismo Capitalisme contre étatisme Capitalismo versus estatismo Kapitalismus versus statismus Captain Davies and Private Slovik Capitán Davies y Soldado Slovik Capitaine Davies et Soldat Slovik Capitão Davies e Soldado Particular Slovik Kapitän Davies und Private Slovik Checks and balances: Two kinds Verificaciones y saldos: Dos tipos Contrôles et soldes: Deux types Cheques e saldos: Dois tipos Checks and balances: Zwei arten Children Niños Les enfants Crianças Kinder Children and the family Los niños y la familia Les enfants et la famille Crianças e família Kinder und die familie Christopher Hitchens on evidence Christopher Hitchens en evidencia Christopher Hitchens en preuve Christopher Hitchens em evidência Christopher Hitchens über beweise Code Code Code Code Code Communication Communication Communication Communication Communication Competition and cooperation Competencia y cooperación Concurrence et coopération Concorrência e cooperação Wettbewerb und zusammenarbeit Controls Controls Controls Controls Controls Counter the state Contrarrestar el estado Contre l’état Contador do estado Gegen den staat Coverage but not care Cobertura pero no importa Couverture mais pas attention Cobertura, mas não me importo Abdeckung, aber egal Creativity apps Creatividad apps La créativité apps Criatividade apps Kreativität apps Day of infamy: July 26, 1941 Día de la infamia: 26 de Julio de 1941 Jour d’infamie: 26 Juillet 1941 Dia da infâmia: 26 de Julho de 1941 Tag der schande: 26 Juli 1941 Define your terms: Capitalism Define tus términos: Capitalismo Définissez vos termes: Capitalisme Defina seus termos: Capitalismo Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Kapitalismus Define your terms: Corporatism Define tus términos: Corporativismo Définissez vos termes: Corporatisme Defina seus termos: Corporativismo Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Korporatismus Define your terms: State Define tus términos: Estado Définissez vos termes: Etat Defina seus termos: Estado Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Staat Define your terms: Statism Define tus términos: Estatismo Définissez vos termes: Statisme Defina seus termos: Statism Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Statismus Define your terms: Voluntaryism Define tus términos: Voluntariado Définissez vos termes: Volontariat Defina seus termos: Voluntariado Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Freiwilligkeit Democracy is impossible La democracia es imposible La démocratie est impossible Democracia é impossível Demokratie ist unmöglich Democracy is slavery La democracia es esclavitud La démocratie est l’esclavage Democracia é escravidão Demokratie ist sklaverei Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Discs Discs Discs Discs Discs Disproving the state Refutando el estado La réfutation de l’état Desprovando o estado Den staat widerlegen Do anarcho-capitalists favour chaos? ¿Los anarcocapitalistas favorecen el caos? Les anarcho-capitalistes favorisent-ils le chaos? Os anarco-capitalistas favorecem o caos? Bevorzugen anarcho-kapitalisten das chaos? Dock Dock Dock Dock Dock Does money inspire us to cooperate? ¿El dinero nos inspira a cooperar? L’argent nous inspire-t-il à coopérer? O dinheiro nos inspira a cooperar? Inspiriert uns geld zur zusammenarbeit? Does spanking violate the non-aggression principle? ¿Las nalgadas violan el principio de no agresión? La fessée viole-t-elle le principe de non-agression? A surra viola o princípio da não agressão? Verstößt spanking gegen das nichtangriffsprinzip? Don’t anarchists assume that all people are innately virtuous? ¿No asumen los anarquistas que todas las personas son virtuosas por naturaleza? Les anarchistes ne supposent-ils pas que tout le monde est naturellement vertueux? Os anarquistas não presumem que todas as pessoas são virtuosas por natureza? Gehen anarchisten nicht davon aus, dass alle menschen von natur aus tugendhaft sind? Don’t anarchists favour chaos? ¿No favorecen los anarquistas el caos? Les anarchistes ne sont-ils pas favorables au chaos? Os anarquistas não favorecem o caos? Bevorzugen anarchisten kein chaos? Don’t anarchists favour the abolition of the family, property, religion, and other social institutions besides the state? ¿No favorecen los anarquistas la abolición de la familia, la propiedad, la religión y otras instituciones sociales además del estado? Les anarchistes ne sont-ils pas favorables à l’abolition de la famille, de la propriété, de la religion et d’autres institutions sociales en plus de l’État? Os anarquistas não favorecem a abolição da família, propriedade, religião e outras instituições sociais além do estado? Befürworten anarchisten nicht die abschaffung der familie, des eigentums, der religion und anderer sozialer Institutionen neben dem staat? Economics Económicas Économie Economia Wirtschaft Education Educación Éducation Educação Bildung Eight dangerous myths about spanking Ocho mitos peligrosos sobre las nalgadas Huit mythes dangereux sur la fessée Oito mitos perigosos sobre surras Acht gefährliche mythen über prügel Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia Encyclopaedia Environment Medio ambiente Environnement Meio Ambiente Umgebung Ethics Ética Éthique Ética Ethik Ethics, human nature, and government Ética, naturaleza humana, y gobierno. Éthique, nature humaine, et gouvernement Ética, natureza humana, e governo Ethik, menschliche natur, und regierung Existence, logic, evidence, and truth Existencia, lógica, evidencia y verdad Existence, logique, évidence et vérité Existência, lógica, evidência e verdade Existenz, logik, beweise und wahrheit Family Familia Famille Família Familie Files Files Files Files Files Film Editor Film Editor Film Editor Film Editor Film Editor Fonts Fonts Fonts Fonts Fonts Forget the argument from efficiency Olvida el argumento de la eficiencia Oubliez l’argument de l’efficacité Esqueça o argumento da eficiência Vergessen sie das argument der effizienz Free association Asociación libre Association libre Associação livre Freie vereinigung Free body Cuerpo libre Corps libre Corpo livre Freier körper Free families to statist societies and back again Familias gratuitas a sociedades estatistas y viceversa Libérer les familles des sociétés d’état et inversement Famílias livres para sociedades estatistas e vice-versa Freie familien zu statistischen gesellschaften und wieder zurück Free markets and monopoly Mercados libres y monopolio Marchés libres et monopole Mercados livres e monopólio Freie märkte und monopol Free mind Mente libre Esprit libre Mente livre Freigeist Free trade Libre comercio Libre échange Livre comércio Freihandel Freedom on a leash Libertad con correa Liberté en laisse Liberdade na coleira Freiheit an der leine Freedom to chose your own money Libertad para elegir tu propio dinero Liberté de choisir son propre argent Liberdade para escolher seu próprio dinheiro Freiheit dein eigenes geld zu wählen Freedom, liberty, peace, happiness, and prosperity Libertad, libertad, paz, felicidad y prosperidad Liberté, liberté, paix, bonheur et prospérité Liberdade, liberdade, paz, felicidade e prosperidade Freiheit, freiheit, frieden, glück und wohlstand Freedom, reason, and cults Libertad, razón y cultos Liberté, raison et cultes Liberdade, razão e cultos Freiheit, vernunft und kulte Frequently asked questions Preguntas frecuentes Questions fréquemment posées Perguntas frequentes Häufig gestellte fragen Funding public goods: Six solutions Financiación de bienes públicos: Seis soluciones Financement des biens publics: Six solutions Financiamento de bens públicos: Seis soluções Finanzierung öffentlicher güter: Sechs lösungen Games Games Games Games Games Government Gobierno Gouvernement Governo Regierung Government as rape Gobierno como violación Le gouvernement comme viol Governo como estupro Regierung als vergewaltigung Government control of immigration: Is it a violation of individual sovereignty? Control gubernamental de la inmigración: ¿es una violación de la soberanía individual? Contrôle gouvernemental de l’immigration: est-ce une violation de la souveraineté individuelle? Controle governamental da imigração: É uma violação da soberania individual? Kontrolle der einwanderung durch die regierung: Handelt es sich um eine verletzung der individuellen souveränität? Green rising: The dangers of political environmentalism Levantamiento verde: Los peligros del ambientalismo político Levée verte: Les dangers de l’environnementalisme politique Crescimento verde: Os perigos do ambientalismo político Grüner aufstieg: Die gefahren des politischen umweltschutzes Hard money in the voluntaryist tradition Dinero duro en la tradición voluntarista De l’argent dur dans la tradition du volontariat Dinheiro duro na tradição voluntária Hartes geld in der freiwilligen tradition Have there been any anarcho-capitalist societies? ¿Ha habido sociedades anarcocapitalistas? Y a-t-il eu des sociétés anarcho-capitalistes? Houve alguma sociedade anarco-capitalista? Gab es anarcho-kapitalistische gesellschaften? Have there been any historical examples of anarchist societies? ¿Ha habido ejemplos históricos de sociedades anarquistas? Y a-t-il eu des exemples historiques de sociétés anarchistes? Houve algum exemplo histórico de sociedades anarquistas? Gab es historische beispiele für anarchistische gesellschaften? Health Salud Santé Saúde Gesundheit Health care: An anarchist approach Cuidado de la salud: Un enfoque anarquista Soins de santé: Une approche anarchiste Cuidados de saúde: Uma abordagem anarquista Gesundheitsversorgung: Ein anarchistischer ansatz Healthcare is a right? La asistencia sanitaria es un derecho? La santé est un droit? Saúde é um direito? Gesundheitswesen ist ein recht? Home Home Home Home Home Home is best El hogar es lo mejor La maison est la meilleure Lar é o melhor Zuhause ist am besten How can governments be abolished? ¿Cómo se pueden abolir los gobiernos? Comment les gouvernements peuvent-ils être abolis? Como os governos podem ser abolidos? Wie können regierungen abgeschafft werden? How do anarcho-capitalists compare with other anarchists? ¿Cómo se comparan los anarcocapitalistas con otros anarquistas? Comment les anarcho-capitalistes se comparent-ils aux autres anarchistes? Como os anarco-capitalistas se comparam a outros anarquistas? Wie vergleichen sich anarcho-kapitalisten mit anderen anarchisten? How free is the “free market”? ¿Qué tan libre es el “mercado libre”? Le “marché libre” est-il gratuit? Quão livre é o “mercado livre”? Wie frei ist der “freie Markt”? How government solved the health care crisis Cómo el gobierno resolvió la crisis de salud Comment le gouvernement a résolu la crise des soins de santé Como o governo resolveu a crise da saúde Wie die regierung die gesundheitskrise gelöst hat How might an anarchist society be achieved? ¿Cómo se puede lograr una sociedad anarquista? Comment une société anarchiste pourrait-elle être réalisée? Como uma sociedade anarquista pode ser alcançada? Wie könnte eine anarchistische gesellschaft erreicht werden? How might an anarcho-capitalist society be achieved? ¿Cómo se puede lograr una sociedad anarcocapitalista? Comment parvenir à une société anarcho-capitaliste? Como uma sociedade anarco-capitalista pode ser alcançada? Wie könnte eine anarcho-kapitalistische gesellschaft erreicht werden? How the free market works Cómo funciona el mercado libre Comment fonctionne le marché libre Como funciona o mercado livre Wie der freie markt funktioniert How the state destroys social cooperation Cómo el estado destruye la cooperación social Comment l’état détruit la coopération sociale Como o Estado destrói a cooperação social Wie der staat die soziale zusammenarbeit zerstört How the state thrives, how the state fails Cómo prospera el estado, cómo falla el estado Comment l’état prospère, comment l’état échoue Como o estado prospera, como o estado falha Wie der staat gedeiht, wie der staat versagt How to establish a government Cómo establecer un gobierno Comment établir un gouvernement Como estabelecer um governo Wie man eine regierung gründet How to prevent violent criminal behaviour in the next generation Cómo prevenir el comportamiento criminal violento en la próxima generación Comment prévenir les comportements criminels violents dans la prochaine génération Como evitar comportamentos criminosos violentos na próxima geração Wie man gewalttätiges kriminelles verhalten in der nächsten generation verhindert How would anarchists handle the public goods problem? ¿Cómo manejarían los anarquistas el problema de los bienes públicos? Comment les anarchistes géreraient-ils le problème des biens publics? Como os anarquistas lidariam com o problema dos bens públicos? Wie würden anarchisten mit dem problem der öffentlichen güter umgehen? How would anarcho-capitalism work? ¿Cómo funcionaría el anarcocapitalismo? Comment fonctionnerait le capitalisme anarcho? Como funcionaria o anarco capitalismo? Wie würde der anarchokapitalismus funktionieren? How would anarcho-capitalists handle the public goods problem? ¿Cómo manejarían los anarcocapitalistas el problema de los bienes públicos? Comment les anarcho-capitalistes traiteraient-ils le problème des biens publics? Como os anarco-capitalistas lidariam com o problema dos bens públicos? Wie würden anarcho-kapitalisten mit dem problem der öffentlichen güter umgehen? How would left anarchy work? ¿Cómo funcionaría la anarquía de izquierda? Comment fonctionnerait l'anarchie de gauche? Como a anarquia de esquerda funcionaria? Wie würde die anarchie funktionieren? Human nature La naturaleza humana Nature humaine Natureza humana Menschliche natur i suport publick skools apoyo a publick skools je soutiens les écoles publick eu apoio skools publick ich unterstütze publick skools I, Pencil Yo, Lápiz Moi, Crayon Eu Lápis Ich, Bleistift Ignorance of the law is an excuse La ignorancia de la ley es una excusa L’ignorance de la loi est une excuse A ignorância da lei é uma desculpa Unwissenheit über das gesetz ist eine entschuldigung Immigration: Anarchy worked Inmigración: La anarquía funcionó Immigration: L’anarchie a fonctionné Imigração: Anarquia trabalhou Einwanderung: Anarchie hat funktioniert Importing freedom Importando libertad Importer la liberté Importando liberdade Freiheit importieren In defence of anarchism En defensa del anarquismo Pour la défense de l’anarchisme Em defesa do anarquismo Zur verteidigung des anarchismus In defence of organ-legging En defensa de las piernas de órganos En défense du legging d’orgue Em defesa da legging de órgãos Zur verteidigung von organbeinen In search of the super villain En busca del super villano À la recherche du super méchant Em busca do super vilão Auf der suche nach dem superschurken Individual liberty Libertad individual Liberté individuelle Liberdade individual Individuelle freiheit Interventionism Intervencionismo Interventionnisme Intervencionismo Interventionismus Is anarchism the same thing as libertarianism? ¿Es el anarquismo lo mismo que el libertarismo? L’anarchisme est-il la même chose que le libertarisme? Anarquismo é a mesma coisa que libertarianismo? Ist anarchismus dasselbe wie libertarismus? Is anarchism the same thing as socialism? ¿Es el anarquismo lo mismo que el socialismo? L’anarchisme est-il la même chose que le socialisme? Anarquismo é a mesma coisa que socialismo? Ist anarchismus dasselbe wie sozialismus? Is anarcho-capitalism the same thing as libertarianism? ¿Es el anarcocapitalismo lo mismo que el libertarismo? L'anarcho-capitalisme est-il la même chose que le libertarisme? Anarco-capitalismo é a mesma coisa que libertarianismo? Ist anarchokapitalismus dasselbe wie libertarismus? Is anarcho-capitalism utopian? ¿Es utópico el anarcocapitalismo? L’anarcho-capitalisme est-il utopique? O anarco-capitalismo é utópico? Ist der Anarcho-Kapitalismus utopisch? Is evil necessary? ¿Es necesario el mal? Le mal est-il nécessaire? O mal é necessário? Ist das böse notwendig? Is laissez faire capitalism exploitative? ¿El capitalismo de laissez faire es explotador? Le capitalisme du laissez-faire est-il exploiteur? O capitalismo do laissez faire é explorador? Ist der laissez-faire-kapitalismus ausbeuterisch? Is voting an act of violence? ¿Es votar un acto de violencia? Le vote est-il un acte de violence? O voto é um ato de violência? Ist das wählen ein akt der gewalt? Isn’t anarchism utopian? ¿No es utópico el anarquismo? L’anarchisme n’est-il pas utopique? O anarquismo não é utópico? Ist der anarchismus nicht utopisch? Judeo-Christian morality versus the free society La moral Judeocristiana frente a la sociedad libre Moralidade Judaico-Cristã versus sociedade livre Moralidade Judaico-Cristã versus sociedade livre Jüdisch-Christliche moral gegen die freie gesellschaft Justice Justicia Justice Justiça Gerechtigkeit Keep calm and forever libertarian Mantén la calma y por siempre libertario Restez calme et libertaire pour toujours Mantenha a calma e sempre libertário Bleib ruhig und für immer libertär Kill private capital, kill civilisation Mata capital privado, mata civilización Tuez des capitaux privés, tuez la civilisation Matar capital privado, matar civilização Töte privates kapital, töte die zivilisation Law enforcement socialism Socialismo de aplicación de la ley Socialisme répressif Socialismo policial Strafverfolgungssozialismus Law, property rights, and air pollution Ley, derechos de propiedad y contaminación del aire Loi, droits de propriété et pollution atmosphérique Lei, direitos de propriedade e poluição do ar Recht, eigentumsrechte und luftverschmutzung Libertarian anarchism: Responses to ten objections Anarquismo libertario: Respuestas a diez objeciones Anarchisme libertaire: Réponses à dix objections Anarquismo libertário: Respostas a dez objeções Libertärer anarchismus: Antworten auf zehn einwände Liberty as a lack of unchosen positive obligations La libertad como falta de obligaciones positivas no elegidas La liberté comme un manque d’obligations positives non choisies Liberdade como falta de obrigações positivas não escolhidas Freiheit als mangel an nicht gewählten positiven verpflichtungen Liberty for all means immigrants too Libertad para todos significa inmigrantes también La liberté pour tous signifie aussi l’immigration Liberdade para todos os meios também imigrantes Freiheit für alle bedeutet auch einwanderer Limited government Gobierno limitado Gouvernement limité Governo limitado Begrenzte regierung Limited government — A moral issue? Gobierno limitado: ¿Un problema moral? Un gouvernement limité — Une question morale? Governo limitado — Uma questão moral? Begrenzte Regierung — Eine moralische frage? Login Login Login Login Login Man, family, and state Hombre, familia y estado Homme, famille et état Homem, família e estado Mann, familie und staat Maps Maps Maps Maps Maps Market Mercado Marché Mercado Markt Market anarchism versus market statism Anarquismo de mercado versus estatismo de mercado L’anarchisme de marché contre l’étatisme de marché Anarquismo de mercado versus estatismo de mercado Marktanarchismus versus marktstatismus Market prices — Purpose versus arbitrariness Precios de mercado — Propósito versus arbitrariedad Prix du marché — But contre arbitraire Preços de mercado — Finalidade versus arbitrariedade Marktpreise — Zweck versus willkür Marx as utopian Marx como utópico Marx comme utopiste Marx como utópico Marx als utopist Messages Messages Messages Messages Messages Meth and other drug war facts Metanfetamina y otros hechos de la guerra contra las drogas Meth et autres faits sur la guerre contre la drogue Metanfetamina e outros fatos da guerra às drogas Meth und andere fakten zum drogenkrieg Minarchism Minarquismo Minarchisme Minarquismo Minarchismus Minarchism versus anarchism Minarquismo versus anarquismo Minarchisme contre anarchisme Minarquismo versus anarquismo Minarchismus gegen anarchismus Minarchism: Ethically self-contradictory Minarquismo: Éticamente autocontradictorio Minarchisme: Éthiquement contradictoire Minarquismo: Éticamente auto-contraditório Minarchismus: Ethisch widersprüchlich Money Dinero Argent Dinheiro Geld Multimedia Multimedia Multimédia Multimídia Multimedia Music Music Music Music Music Natural law La Ley natural Loi naturelle Lei natural Naturgesetz Neither tax nor punishment Ni impuestos ni castigos Ni impôt ni punition Nem imposto nem punição Weder steuern noch strafen News News News News News No rulers Sin gobernantes Pas de dirigeants Sem réguas Keine herrscher No treason: The constitution of no authority Sin traición: La constitución de ninguna autoridad Pas de trahison: La constitution d’aucune autorité Sem traição: A constituição de nenhuma autoridade Kein verrat: Die verfassung ohne autorität Notes Notes Notes Notes Notes Notifications Notifications Notifications Notifications Notifications Objective morality Moralidad objetiva Moralité objective Moralidade objetiva Objektive moral Objects are morally neutral Los objetos son moralmente neutros Les objets sont moralement neutres Objetos são moralmente neutros Objekte sind moralisch neutral On human nature Sobre la naturaleza humana Sur la nature humaine Sobre a natureza humana Über die menschliche natur On overcoming scarcity Sobre la superación de la escasez Surmonter la pénurie Superando a escassez Über die überwindung der knappheit On slavery in a free market Sobre la esclavitud en un mercado libre Sur l’esclavage dans un marché libre Sobre a escravidão em um mercado livre Über die sklaverei in einem freien markt On the meaning of voting Sobre el significado de votar Sur le sens du vote Sobre o significado da votação Über die bedeutung der abstimmung On the need for a final arbiter Sobre la necesidad de un árbitro final Sur la nécessité d'un arbitre final Sobre a necessidade de um árbitro final Über die notwendigkeit eines endgültigen schiedsrichters On the rule of law Sobre el estado de derecho Sur l’état de droit Sobre o estado de direito Rechtsstaatlichkeit On voting En la votación Sur le vote Na votação Bei der abstimmung Only cowards vote Solo los cobardes votan Seuls les lâches votent Somente covardes votam Nur feiglinge stimmen ab Ownership of the product by capitalists Propiedad del producto por los capitalistas Propriété du produit par les capitalistes Propriedade do produto pelos capitalistas Eigentum des produkts durch kapitalisten Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Phone Phone Phone Phone Phone Photos Photos Photos Photos Photos Pixelater Pixelater Pixelater Pixelater Pixelater Plain talk about spanking Hablar claro de azotes Parler clairement de la fessée Discussão simples sobre palmada Einfach über spanking reden Podcasts Podcasts Podcasts Podcasts Podcasts Politics is the opiate of the masses La política es el opio de las masas La politique est l’opium des masses A política é o ópio das massas Politik ist das opiat der massen Positive “rights” “Derechos” positivos Des “droits” positifs “Direitos” positivos Positive “rechte” Power Poder Puissance Poder Leistung Pragmatic utilitarianism: A road to tyranny Utilitarismo pragmático: Un camino hacia la tiranía Utilitarisme pragmatique: Un chemin vers la tyrannie Utilitarismo pragmático: Um caminho para a tirania Pragmatischer utilitarismus: Ein weg zur tyrannei Principles, freedom, and you Principios, libertad y tu Principes, liberté et vous Princípios, liberdade e você Prinzipien, freiheit und du Private charity versus “public welfare” Caridad privada versus “bienestar público” Charité privée contre “bien-être public” Caridade privada versus “bem-estar público” Private Wohltätigkeit versus “Gemeinwohl” Private property or possession: A synthesis Propiedad o posesión privada: Una síntesis Propriété ou possession privée: Une synthèse Propriedade ou posse privada: Uma síntese Privateigentum oder besitz: Eine synthese Productivity Productividad Productivité Produtividade Produktivität Publisher Publisher Publisher Publisher Publisher Punishment versus restitution: A formulation Castigo versus restitución: Una formulación Punition contre restitution: Une formulation Punição versus restituição: Uma formulação Bestrafung versus wiedergutmachung: Eine formulierung Pursuing justice in a free society Persiguiendo la justicia en una sociedad libre Poursuivre la justice dans une société libre Buscar a justiça em uma sociedade livre Streben nach gerechtigkeit in einer freien gesellschaft Religion Religión Religion Religião Religion Religion Religión Religion Religião Religion Reminders Reminders Reminders Reminders Reminders Resist injustice Resistir la injusticia Résister à l'injustice Resistir à injustiça Widerstehen sie der ungerechtigkeit Resist untruth Resistir la mentira Résister au mensonge Resista à mentira Widerstehen sie der unwahrheit The state: A review El estado: Una revisión L’état: Un bilan O estado: Uma revisão Der staat: Eine überprüfung Review: Universally Preferable Behaviour Revisión: Comportamiento Universalmente Preferible Révision: Comportement Universellement Préférable Revisão: Comportamento Universalmente Preferível Rückblick: Allgemein Bevorzugtes Verhalten Ricky Gervais on offence Ricky Gervais en ataque Ricky Gervais en attaque Ricky Gervais no ataque Ricky Gervais in der offensive Right, wrong, and the difference Bien, mal y la diferencia Bien, mal et la différence Certo, errado e a diferença Richtig, falsch und der unterschied Rights Derechos Droits Direitos Rechte Roads to serfdom Caminos a la servidumbre Les routes du servage Estradas para a servidão Wege zur leibeigenschaft Secular deities and the problem of humanism Deidades seculares y el problema del humanismo Divinités laïques et problème de l’humanisme Deidades seculares e o problema do humanismo Weltliche gottheiten und das problem des humanismus Self-ownership Propiedad propia Propriété de soi Propriedade própria Eigenverantwortung Settings Settings Settings Settings Settings Sheets Sheets Sheets Sheets Sheets Slavery contracts and inalienable rights: A formulation Contratos de esclavitud y derechos inalienables: Una formulación Contrats d’esclavage et droits inaliénables: Une formulation Contratos de escravidão e direitos inalienáveis: Uma formulação Sklaverei-verträge und unveräußerliche rechte: Eine formulierung Slides Slides Slides Slides Slides Social Social Social Social Social Socialism of the right Socialismo de la derecha Socialisme de droite Socialismo de direita Sozialismus der rechten Society in jail Sociedad en la carcel Société en prison Sociedade na cadeia Gesellschaft im gefängnis Society without a state Sociedad sin estado Société sans état Sociedade sem estado Gesellschaft ohne staat Sound Editor Sound Editor Sound Editor Sound Editor Sound Editor Stateless dictatorships: How a free society prevents the re-emergence of a government Dictaduras sin estado: Cómo una sociedad libre evita el resurgimiento de un gobierno Dictatures apatrides: Comment une société libre empêche la réémergence d’un gouvernement Ditaduras apátridas: Como uma sociedade livre impede o ressurgimento de um governo Staatenlose diktaturen: Wie eine freie gesellschaft das wiederauftauchen einer regierung verhindert Stateless not lawless: Voluntaryism and arbitration Apátridas no sin ley: Voluntariado y arbitraje Apatrides pas sans loi: Volontariat et arbitrage Apátrida, não ilegal: Voluntariado e arbitragem Staatenlos nicht gesetzlos: Freiwilligkeit und schiedsgerichtsbarkeit Statist reasoning: Non-freedom for non-voters Razonamiento estadístico: No libertad para los no votantes Raisonnement étatique: Non-liberté pour les non-votants Raciocínio estatista: Não-liberdade para não-eleitores Statistische argumentation: Nichtfreiheit für nichtwähler Statist reasoning: Not me, but everybody else Razonamiento estadístico: No yo, sino todos los demás Raisonnement étatiste: Pas moi, mais tout le monde Raciocínio estatista: Não eu, mas todo mundo Statistische argumentation: Nicht ich, sondern alle anderen Stay positive Mantente positivo Reste positif Se mantenha positivo Bleib positiv Store Store Store Store Store Strong atheism Fuerte ateísmo Athéisme fort Ateísmo forte Starker atheismus Switch Switch Switch Switch Switch Symptoms of government meddling in health care Síntomas de intromisión del gobierno en la atención médica Symptômes d’ingérence du gouvernement dans les soins de santé Sintomas de intromissão do governo nos cuidados de saúde Symptome einer einmischung der regierung in die gesundheitsversorgung Tangled as political allegory Enredado como alegoría política Emmêlé comme allégorie politique Emaranhado como alegoria política Wirren als politische allegorie Tax is theft! Imposto é roubo! La taxe, c’est du vol! Imposto é roubo! Steuer ist diebstahl! Taxation Impuestos Imposition Imposto Besteuerung Taxation is robbery Los impuestos son robos La fiscalité est un vol Tributação é roubo Besteuerung ist raub Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terrorists at the gate Terroristas en la puerta Terroristes à la porte Terroristas no portão Terroristen am tor Test Prueba Tester Teste Prüfung The age of the suitcase nuke La edad de la maleta nuclear L’âge de la valise nuke A idade das armas nucleares da mala Das Alter der koffernuke The anarchism and minarchism blur El anarquismo y el minarquismo se difuminan L’anarchisme et le minarchisme se brouillent O anarquismo e o minarquismo se confundem Der anarchismus und der minarchismus verschwimmen The argument from morality El argumento de la moral L’argument de la morale O argumento da moralidade Das argument der moral The case for free immigration, the case against borders El caso de la inmigración libre, el caso contra las fronteras Les arguments en faveur d’une immigration libre, les arguments contre les frontières O caso da imigração livre, o caso contra as fronteiras Der fall für freie einwanderung, der fall gegen grenzen The decline and fall of private law in Iceland El declive y la caída del derecho privado en Islandia Le déclin et la chute du droit privé en Islande O declínio e queda do direito privado na Islândia Der niedergang und fall des privatrechts in Island The decline of morality in the west La decadencia de la moral en occidente Le déclin de la moralité à l’ouest O declínio da moralidade no oeste Der niedergang der moral im westen The end of the end-means dichotomy El fin de la dicotomía de los medios del fin La fin de la dichotomie de fin signifie O fim da dicotomia final significa Das ende des endes bedeutet dichotomie The ethics of voluntaryism La ética del voluntariado L’éthique du volontariat A ética do voluntariado Die ethik des freiwilligendienstes The Fed’s grasping invisible hand La mano invisible de la Reserva Federal La main invisible de la Fed A mão invisível do Fed Die Fed greift nach unsichtbarer hand The fundamentals of voluntaryism Los fundamentos del voluntariado Les fondamentaux du volontariat Os fundamentos do voluntariado Die grundlagen des freiwilligendienstes The gold standard El estándar de oro L’étalon-or O padrão ouro Der goldstandard The immorality of the state La inmoralidad del estado L’immoralité de l’état A imoralidade do estado Die unmoral des staates The law La ley La loi A lei Das gesetz The libertarian immigration conundrum El enigma de la inmigración libertaria L’énigme de l’immigration libertaire O dilema da imigração libertária Das libertäre einwanderungsproblem The magical trillion dollar coin La moneda mágica de billones de dólares La pièce magique de mille milliards de dollars A moeda mágica de trilhões de dólares Die magische billionen-dollar-münze The meaning of Nagasaki El significado de Nagasaki La signification de Nagasaki O significado de Nagasaki Die bedeutung von Nagasaki The myth of the rule of law El mito del estado de derecho Le mythe de l'état de droit O mito do estado de direito Der mythos der rechtsstaatlichkeit The myth of the social contract El mito del contrato social Le mythe du contrat social O mito do contrato social Der mythos vom gesellschaftsvertrag The nature of law La naturaleza de la ley La nature du droit A natureza da lei Die natur des gesetzes The origin of government authority El origen de la autoridad gubernamental L’origine de l’autorité gouvernementale A origem da autoridade governamental Der ursprung der regierungsbehörde The pluralism of liberty El pluralismo de la libertad Le pluralisme de la liberté O pluralismo da liberdade Der pluralismus der freiheit The power in money El poder en el dinero Le pouvoir en argent O poder do dinheiro Die macht im geld The prince El príncipe Le prince O príncipe Der prinz The private justice alternative La alternativa de la justicia privada L’alternative de justice privée A alternativa da justiça privada Die alternative zur privaten justiz The production of security La producción de seguridad La production de sécurité A produção de segurança Die produktion von sicherheit The real curriculum of “public” education El currículum real de la educación “pública” Le véritable curriculum de l’éducation “publique” O currículo real da educação “pública” Der eigentliche lehrplan der “öffentlichen” bildung The rule of law without the state El estado de derecho sin el estado L’état de droit sans l’état O estado de direito sem o estado Rechtsstaatlichkeit ohne staat The sacred green cow La sagrada vaca verde La vache verte sacrée A vaca verde sagrada Die heilige grüne kuh The second question La segunda pregunta La deuxième question A segunda questão Die zweite frage The shell La cáscara La coquille A concha Die schale The state El estado L’état O estado Der staat The state: Human parasite El estado: Parásito humano L’état: Parasite humain O estado: Parasita humano Der staat: Menschlicher parasit The stateless society La sociedad sin estado La société apatride A sociedade apátrida Die staatenlose gesellschaft The stateless society strikes back La sociedad apátrida contraataca La société apatride riposte A sociedade apátrida ataca Die staatenlose gesellschaft schlägt zurück The state’s education monopoly increases prices and destroys choice El monopolio educativo del estado aumenta los precios y destruye las opciones Le monopole de l’état sur l’éducation fait augmenter les prix et détruit le choix O monopólio da educação do estado aumenta os preços e destrói a escolha Das staatliche bildungsmonopol erhöht die preise und zerstört die wahlmöglichkeiten The statist mindset of anarchists La mentalidad estatista de los anarquistas La mentalité étatiste des anarchistes A mentalidade estatista dos anarquistas Die statistische denkweise der anarchisten The stone mover El motor de piedra Le déménageur de pierre O movedor de pedra Der steinmacher The theology of statism La teología del estatismo La théologie de l’étatisme A teologia do estatismo Die theologie des statismus The tragedy of political government La tragedia del gobierno político La tragédie du gouvernement politique A tragédia do governo político Die tragödie der politischen regierung The trouble with bureaucracy El problema con la burocracia Le problème avec la bureaucratie O problema com a burocracia Das problem mit der bürokratie The true history of ethics La verdadera historia de la ética La vraie histoire de l’éthique A verdadeira história da ética Die wahre geschichte der ethik The truth about anarchism La verdad sobre el anarquismo La vérité sur l’anarchisme A verdade sobre o anarquismo Die wahrheit über den anarchismus The unprotected class La clase desprotegida La classe non protégée A classe desprotegida Die ungeschützte klasse The voluntaryist spirit El espiritu voluntario L’esprit bénévole O espírito voluntário Der freiwillige geist The war prayer La oración de guerra La prière de guerre A oração de guerra Das kriegsgebet The why of homeschool El porqué de la educación en el hogar Le pourquoi de l’école-maison O porquê do homeschool Das warum der homeschool The world’s biggest oxymoron El oxímoron más grande del mundo Le plus grand oxymore du monde O maior oxímoro do mundo Das größte oxymoron der welt There’s no government like no government No hay gobierno como ningún gobierno Il n’y a pas de gouvernement comme aucun gouvernement Não há governo como nenhum governo Es gibt keine regierung wie keine regierung These cages are only for beasts Estas jaulas son solo para bestias Ces cages sont réservées aux bêtes Essas gaiolas são apenas para animais Diese käfige sind nur für bestien This is a government war Esta es una guerra del gobierno Ceci est une guerre gouvernementale Esta é uma guerra do governo Dies ist ein regierungskrieg Thomas Sowell on politicians Thomas Sowell sobre los políticos Thomas Sowell sur les politiciens Thomas Sowell sobre políticos Thomas Sowell über politiker Thoughts on punishment Pensamientos sobre el castigo Réflexions sur la punition Pensamentos sobre punição Gedanken zur bestrafung Time to divorce marriage and government Hora de divorciarse del matrimonio y el gobierno Il est temps de divorcer du mariage et du gouvernement Hora de se divorciar do casamento e do governo Zeit, sich von ehe und regierung scheiden zu lassen Travel and labour should be peaceful Los viajes y el trabajo deberían ser pacíficos Les voyages et le travail doivent être pacifiques Viagens e trabalho devem ser pacíficos Reisen und arbeit sollten friedlich sein Truth or illusion Verdad o ilusión Vérité ou illusion Verdade ou ilusão Wahrheit oder illusion Understanding religion as child abuse Entendiendo la religión como abuso infantil Comprendre la religion comme un abus envers les enfants Entendendo a religião como abuso infantil Religion als kindesmissbrauch verstehen Utilities Utilidades Utilitaires Utilidades Dienstprogramme Vectoriser Vectoriser Vectoriser Vectoriser Vectoriser Vices are not crimes Los vicios no son crímenes Les vices ne sont pas des crimes Vícios não são crimes Laster sind keine verbrechen Videos Videos Videos Videos Videos Voice Memos Voice Memos Voice Memos Voice Memos Voice Memos Vote Nobody Votar Nadie Votez Personne Votar em Ninguém Stimmen sie Niemanden ab War Guerra Guerre Guerra Krieg War is a racket — made by government La guerra es una raqueta — hecha por el gobierno La guerre est une raquette — faite par le gouvernement A guerra é uma raquete — feita pelo governo Krieg ist ein schläger — von der regierung gemacht Weather Weather Weather Weather Weather What are first principles? ¿Qué son los primeros principios? Quels sont les premiers principes? Quais são os primeiros princípios? Was sind erste prinzipien? What are the major debates between anarchists? What are the recurring arguments? ¿Cuáles son los principales debates entre anarquistas? ¿Cuáles son los argumentos recurrentes? Quels sont les débats majeurs entre anarchistes? Quels sont les arguments récurrents? Quais são os principais debates entre anarquistas? Quais são os argumentos recorrentes? Was sind die hauptdebatten zwischen anarchisten? Was sind die wiederkehrenden argumente? What are the myths of socialism? ¿Cuáles son los mitos del socialismo? Quels sont les mythes du socialisme? Quais são os mitos do socialismo? Was sind die mythen des sozialismus? What are the myths of statism? ¿Cuáles son los mitos del estatismo? Quels sont les mythes de l’étatisme? Quais são os mitos do estatismo? Was sind die mythen des statismus? What criticisms have been made of anarchism? ¿Qué críticas se han hecho al anarquismo? Quelles critiques ont été faites à l’anarchisme? Que críticas foram feitas ao anarquismo? Welche kritik wurde am anarchismus geäußert? What does libertarian mean? ¿Qué significa libertario? Que signifie libertaire? O que significa libertário? Was bedeutet libertär? What has government done to our money ¿Qué ha hecho el gobierno a nuestro dinero? Qu’est-ce que le gouvernement a fait à notre argent O que o governo fez com o nosso dinheiro Was hat die regierung mit unserem geld gemacht? What is anarchism? What beliefs do anarchists share? ¿Qué es el anarquismo? ¿Qué creencias comparten los anarquistas? Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? Quelles croyances les anarchistes partagent-ils? O que é anarquismo? Quais crenças os anarquistas compartilham? Was ist anarchismus? Welche überzeugungen teilen anarchisten? What is anarchism? [01/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [01/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [01/14] O que é anarquismo? [01/14] Was ist anarchismus? [01/14] What is anarchism? [02/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [02/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [02/14] O que é anarquismo? [02/14] Was ist anarchismus? [02/14] What is anarchism? [03/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [03/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [03/14] O que é anarquismo? [03/14] Was ist anarchismus? [03/14] What is anarchism? [04/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [04/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [04/14] O que é anarquismo? [04/14] Was ist anarchismus? [04/14] What is anarchism? [05/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [05/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [05/14] O que é anarquismo? [05/14] Was ist anarchismus? [05/14] What is anarchism? [06/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [06/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [06/14] O que é anarquismo? [06/14] Was ist anarchismus? [06/14] What is anarchism? [07/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [07/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [07/14] O que é anarquismo? [07/14] Was ist anarchismus? [07/14] What is anarcho–capitalism? What is anarcho–communism? What is authoritarian capitalism? What is authoritarian socialism? What is authority? ¿Qué es la autoridad? Qu’est-ce que l’autorité? O que é autoridade? Was ist autorität? What is centrism? ¿Qué es el centrismo? Qu’est-ce que le centrisme? O que é centrismo? Was ist zentrismus? What is communism? What is conservatism? What is corporatism? What is democratic socialism? What is exploitation? ¿Qué es la explotación? Qu’est-ce que l’exploitation? O que é exploração? Was ist ausbeutung? What is fascism? What is Georgism? What is international socialism? What is liberalism? What is libertarian capitalism? What is libertarian socialism? What is Marxism? What is minarchism? What is mutualism? What is national socialism? What is neo–conservatism? What is neo–liberalism? What is progressivism? What is property? ¿Qué es la propiedad? Qu’est-ce que la propriété? O que é propriedade? Was ist eigentum? What is social democracy? What is socialism? What is syndicalism? What is the free market? ¿Qué es el mercado libre? Qu'est-ce que le marché libre? O que é o mercado livre? Was ist der freie markt? What is the proper way to study man? ¿Cuál es la forma correcta de estudiar al hombre? Quelle est la bonne façon d’étudier l’homme? Qual é a maneira correta de estudar o homem? Was ist der richtige weg, um den menschen zu studieren? What justifications are there for anarcho-capitalism? ¿Qué justificaciones hay para el anarcocapitalismo? Quelles justifications y a-t-il pour l’anarcho-capitalisme? Quais são as justificativas para o anarco-capitalismo? Welche rechtfertigungen gibt es für den anarcho-kapitalismus? What major subdivisions may be made among anarchists? ¿Qué subdivisiones importantes se pueden realizar entre los anarquistas? Quelles subdivisions majeures peuvent être faites parmi les anarchistes? Quais subdivisões principais podem ser feitas entre os anarquistas? Welche hauptunterteilungen können unter anarchisten vorgenommen werden? What moral justifications have been offered for anarchism? ¿Qué justificaciones morales se han ofrecido al anarquismo? Quelles justifications morales ont été proposées pour l’anarchisme? Que justificativas morais foram oferecidas para o anarquismo? Welche moralischen rechtfertigungen wurden für den anarchismus angeboten? What other anarchist viewpoint are there? ¿Qué otro punto de vista anarquista hay? Quel autre point de vue anarchiste existe-t-il? Que outro ponto de vista anarquista existe? Welchen anderen anarchistischen standpunkt gibt es? When is government a legitimate authority? ¿Cuándo es el gobierno una autoridad legítima? Quand le gouvernement est-il une autorité légitime? Quando o governo é uma autoridade legítima? Wann ist die regierung eine legitime autorität? Who are the major anarchist thinkers? ¿Quiénes son los principales pensadores anarquistas? Qui sont les principaux penseurs anarchistes? Quem são os principais pensadores anarquistas? Wer sind die wichtigsten anarchistischen denker? Who’s really being naive? ¿Quién es realmente ingenuo? Qui est vraiment naïf? Quem está realmente sendo ingênuo? Wer ist wirklich naiv? Who’s the Scrooge? Libertarians and compassion ¿Quién es el Scrooge? Libertarios y compasión Qui est le Scrooge? Libertariens et compassion Quem é o Scrooge? Libertários e compaixão Wer ist der Scrooge? Libertäre und mitgefühl Why should one consider anarchism in the first place? ¿Por qué debería uno considerar el anarquismo en primer lugar? Pourquoi devrait-on envisager l’anarchisme en premier lieu? Por que alguém deveria considerar o anarquismo em primeiro lugar? Warum sollte man überhaupt über anarchismus nachdenken? Why should one consider anarcho-capitalism? ¿Por qué debería uno considerar el anarcocapitalismo? Pourquoi envisager l’anarcho-capitalisme? Por que se deve considerar o anarco-capitalismo? Warum sollte man den anarchokapitalismus in betracht ziehen? Why this spek? ¿Por qué este spek? Pourquoi ce spek? Por que esse spek? Warum diese spek? Without firing a single shot Sin disparar un solo tiro Sans tirer un seul coup Sem disparar um único tiro Ohne einen einzigen schuss abzugeben You don’t own me No me tienes Tu ne m'appartiens pas Você não é meu dono Du besitzt mich nicht You don’t own other people No eres dueño de otras personas Vous ne possédez pas d’autres personnes Você não possui outras pessoas Sie besitzen keine anderen personen

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