Stateless not lawless: Voluntaryism and arbitration Apátridas no sin ley: Voluntariado y arbitraje Apatrides pas sans loi: Volontariat et arbitrage Apátrida, não ilegal: Voluntariado e arbitragem Staatenlos nicht gesetzlos: Freiwilligkeit und schiedsgerichtsbarkeit


Carl Watner

Introduction


Arbitration is a consensual process whereby two parties to a dispute agree to accept as final the judgment of a third person or persons in settling the matter in question. Arbitration depends upon the consent and voluntary agreement of the disputants, and the willingness of the arbitrator(s) to serve. What distinguishes arbitration from all forms of State judicial settlement of disputes is its totally voluntary nature. Arbitrators are not licensed by the State (at least not yet). The disputing parties select the arbitrators and determine the procedure and rules by which their disagreement will be settled. They may agree in advance of any actual dispute to submit their differences to arbitration or they may simply agree to arbitrate an existing problem. The arbitral award or settlement decided upon by the arbitrator obtains its binding force from the contract or agreement of the parties to arbitrate, and does not require the coercive legal apparatus of the State to be respected or enforced. Nonviolent, non-State punishments may be brought to bear against those who, having promised to arbitrate or honour an arbitral award, refuse to do so. Ostracism, excommunication, and the boycott are arbitral sanctions that function in the spirit of true voluntaryism.

Arbitration is undoubtedly as old as mankind, and is certainly older, as an institution, than the near-monopoly court systems we find in use in the contemporary nation-state. Arbitration has been favoured in all the ancient legal systems (Jewish, Roman, Greek, Byzantine, Islamic, and Christian), except that of the Chinese, who believed that “going to law” or court was an evil. (The Chinese, while using mediation and conciliation, have always been reluctant to give third parties the right to make a judgement.) It is probably not an exaggeration, as Jerzy Jakubowski has written, to say that arbitration “is a universal human institution. It is [the] product of a universal human need and desire for the equitable solution of differences inevitably arising from time to time between people by an impartial person having the confidence of and authority from” the disputants themselves.

Wherever arbitration has existed, it has posed a threat to the supremacy of the State judicial system. Consequently, it has been co-opted, regulated, and controlled by the State, making its legal history a complex, and sometimes confusing, tangle. The purpose of this article is to offer an overview of arbitration, both past and current, interpreted from a voluntaryist point of view. Voluntaryists advocate an all voluntary society, where all the affairs of people are undertaken by mutual consent or not at all. In the absence of coercive, tax-supported governments which tend to monopolise the judicial settlement of disputes, arbitration and other voluntary dispute settlement practices would flourish and constitute an integral part of civilised life. The old Law Merchant, which was “voluntarily produced, voluntarily adjudicated, and voluntarily enforced,” and the international commercial arbitration practices of today prove that arbitration is a moral and practical alternative to compulsory dispute settlement by the State.

Most people assume that nation-states are prerequisites for producing “law and order”, and find it difficult to envision a competitive market in the judicial arena. As voluntaryists already realise, such is not the case. If the truth be known, the compulsory nation-state is destructive, rather than supportive, of property rights and the voluntary social order. Bruce Benson, whose scholarly work in this area I wish to acknowledge, once characterised the American Wild West of the mid-1800s (where coercive government was either absent or extremely weak) as “stateless, but not lawless.” Benson would have us focus on the fact that liberty is the mother, not the daughter, of civilised living. Property, contracts, and customary law existed before State-made law tried to supersede them. As Benson and others have noted, private property is a key characteristic of all societies where custom is the primary source of law, and where reciprocity is the primary impetus for meeting one’s obligations.

What does this have to do with arbitration? Arbitration is one of the key sources of voluntary law and order in a society without the State. Every contract or voluntary agreement between two or more people contains within itself the essence of the rules governing the transaction(s) between them. These “homemade” laws or rules derive their power from the consent of the parties, and usually differ markedly from statutory or third-party law (often arbitrarily) imposed upon them by the State with its power of legislative law-making. The essence of this idea can be seen in a conflict between International Business Machines Corp. and Fujitsu Ltd., that occurred during the late 1980s, which included an arbitral award of $833.3 million to IBM. IBM claimed that Fujitsu was copying its software, which then enabled Fujitsu to market computers that were compatible with IBM’s. Government-made copyright law did not clearly address the issue of such a complex software-hardware dispute, because technology had forged ahead into areas never before addressed by State-made law. Shedding the courts, their own legal staffs and lawyers, and four years of wrangling over the issue, the two companies decided to appoint two arbitrators to settle the issue. The two arbitrators were given “sweeping powers to shape future software relations between IBM and Fujitsu. The two men, in their own words, will ‘constitute the intellectual property law between the two companies’.” (Wall Street Journal, Sept. 18, 1987, A1)

History of arbitration


While much of this article will focus on the various aspects and significance of domestic and international commercial arbitration, such as the IBM-Fujitsu case, there are important reasons for considering the use of arbitration in other areas of life. Arbitration can be, and has been resorted to, in many other types of situations involving community, club, or congregational disputes, patient complaints against hospitals or doctors, in divorce proceedings, and in attorney-client disputes. Arbitration has been widely used in resolving labor disputes, as well as in settling consumer complaints against retail businesses. Currently in Japan, arbitration is sometimes used to determine the amount of restitution a criminal owes to his or her victim. With a little imagination arbitration can be applied to almost any facet of life. Two examples will suffice to demonstrate.

The first is found in Jerold Auerbaclis book, Justice Without Law?, and describes the effects of an arbitral case in Puritan New England in the early 1640s. The dispute involved the amount to be paid by a Mrs. Hibbens, “wife of a prominent Boston resident,” and Mr. Crabtree, who provided carpentry services in her house. When neither of the two could agree on how much Crabtree was due, Mr. Hibbens suggested arbitration. He “chose one carpenter and Crabtree another. The arbitrators set a revised fee, but Mrs. Hibbens remained obdurate.” She not only found Crabtree’s work unsatisfactory, but cast aspersions on the skills of the two arbitrators, “which diminished their reputation in the community. Church elders approached Mrs. Hibbens, but she remained unmollified. After another arbitration attempt failed, the dispute moved into the First Church of Boston, where Reverend Cotton presided.”

The focus of the dispute now shifted “from a disagreement over wages to the stubborn recalcitrance of a church member who did not respect communal fellowship.” Not only did Mrs. Hibbens gossip behind the backs of the carpenter-arbitrators, she refused to confront them face-to-face, in a”church way,” as required by congregational rules. Ultimately, Mrs. Hibbens’ behaviour was judged by the entire church membership, “in a process designed to reassert harmony and consensus.” As Auerbach pointed out:

Congregants were free to offer information, opinion, and admonition, but the purpose of individual participation was to encourage a collective congregational judgment, which would isolate offenders, restore them to congregational fellowship, and thereby strengthen communal values. The sanctions of admonition and excommunication were sufficient for this purpose. The church could neither arrest a wrongdoer nor seize his property, but the danger of expulsion, where church and community were virtually co-extensive, loomed ominously. [p.24]

This was Mrs. Hibbens’ fate. She was excommunicated by a vote of the church membership, pronounced “a leprous and unclean person,” and deprived of “the enjoyment of all those blessed privileges and ordinances which God hath entrusted his Church withal, which [she had] so long abused.”

How many Americans know that George Washington placed an arbitration clause in his Last Will and Testament in 1799? Washington hoped that no conflicts would arise concerning the testamentary disposition of his property. However, he provided that “all disputes (if unhappily any should arise) shall be decided by three impartial and intelligent men, known for their probity and good understanding; two to be chosen by the disputants each having the choice of one and the third by the two of those. Which three men thus chosen, shall, unfettered by Law, or legal constructions, declare their intent of the Testators intention; and such decision is to all intents and purposes to be as binding on the Parties as if it had been given in the Supreme Court of the United States.” So far as is known the provisions of this clause went unexercised.

Business arbitration in this country and Europe certainly pre-dated Washington’s will. Americans used arbitration during the Stamp Act crisis of 1765-66 when their refusal to pay British taxes blocked their access to colonial courts. In May 1768, the New York Chamber of Commerce appointed an arbitration committee “for the settlement of commercial disputes outside of the courts.” Referred to as “the oldest American tribunal,” the New York Chamber of Commerce “has continuously, except for a short time at the beginning of [the 20th] century, maintained some form of arbitration procedure.” The New York Stock Exchange, founded in 1792, provided for arbitration in its Constitution of 1817. The oldest arbitral institution in the cotton trade is to be found in Liverpool, England, where the first rules of cotton trading, which included rules governing arbitration, were published in 1863 by the Liverpool Cotton Exchange. Likewise, the first rules of the New York Cotton Exchange, founded in 1870 provided for a court of arbitration. The Dried Fruit Association of New York (now the Association of Food Distributors, Inc.) still maintains an arbitration tribunal which has been in continuous existence since the time of the group’s founding in 1906. One of the Association’s officials, writing in 1958, pointed out that it was not unusual for a request for arbitration to be received in the morning, and the arbitral award be issued the same afternoon. This was most desirable where the commodity in question was perishable and where it needed to be moved before the free time on the dock expired.

As William Wooldridge has pointed out in his chapter on “Voluntary Justice,” arbitration has always played an essential part in the workings of the Law Merchant. For several hundred years, arbitral tribunals composed of merchants and guildsmen settled “the most important trading disputes of England and of much of Europe.” The Law Merchant constituted “the body of customary rules and principles relating to merchants and mercantile transactions and adopted by traders themselves for the purpose of regulating their dealings.” These institutions were completely voluntary, “and if a man ignored their judgment, he [w]ould not be sent to jail.” Their decisions were well-respected, “otherwise people would have never used them in the first place.” No one forced a merchant to abide by his agreements or coerced him into honouring an arbitral award. His failure to do so would not place him in jail, but “neither would he long continue to be a merchant.” As Wooldridge put it,

The complete circumvention of official courts, one of the oldest and best established of civilised institutions, and the voluntary forfeiture of what would seem to be the most fundamental and essential characteristic of any court-the ability to enforce its judgments with legal coercion-present interesting questions . . . [M]edieval merchants must have considered their interests better served by voluntary submission of disputes to one of their own than by formal common-law actions. [p.96].

Clarence Birdseye, author of Arbitration and Business Ethics (1926), once guessed that as many business disputes went to arbitration as were settled by the statist courts. He also observed that these commercial arbitrations “had no direct sanction of law, and were dependent only upon the mutual good faith of the parties for their operation and success.” [p.91] The threat of business sanctions and the desire for reciprocity were the primary motivations businessmen had for voluntarily living up to their promises.

Until the early 1920s, court decisions, some dating back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, governed arbitration proceedings in the United States. Lord Coke’s opinion in Vynior’s Case (Trinity Term, 7 Jac. 1), decided in 1609, formed the basis for the common law doctrine that “1) either party to an arbitration might withdraw at any time before an actual award; and 2) that an agreement to arbitrate a future dispute was against public policy and not enforceable.” The precedent established in Vynior’s case (from which it was extrapolated that the parties to a dispute “may not oust the court of its jurisdiction”-meaning that courts may not be deprived of their jurisdiction even by private agreement) became “the controlling decision in American arbitration law” until the New York State legislature abrogated the common law doctrine in 1920, and until a federal arbitration statute was passed in 1925. Other states soon followed suit, and for the first time in America, agreements to arbitrate future disputes were “legally binding and judicially enforceable.”

These new laws actually undermined the credibility of commercial arbitration. Arbitration had flourished for hundreds of years in the absence of any State-guarantee that arbitration agreements would be enforced by the courts. History had already clearly demonstrated that mercantile conformity to arbitration agreements did not depend upon the existence of the State or its enforcement mechanisms. The Law Merchant had always prohibited appeals of arbitration awards. Arbitration tribunals were designed to avoid unnecessary litigation, as well as to render timely decisions which would not disrupt the pace of business transactions. The laws of the 1920s opened many a Pandora’s box by raising a host of questions about how the new statutes would be enforced, and by creating the opportunity to appeal arbitral awards to the courts. As Bruce Benson noted:

[T]he incentives to develop non-legal sanctions [had been] undermined by these statutes . . . [I]t does not follow that in the absence of modern arbitration statutes the level of arbitration would be dramatically less than it is today.

Lawyers would be less prevalent, and there would be fewer appeals, but because . . . stronger incentives would exist to develop mechanisms for the imposition of reputational sanctions, arbitration would be flourishing, even outside existing associations and exchanges.

International commercial arbitration


In Power And Market, Murray Rothbard pointed out that “the world has lived quite well throughout its existence without a single, ultimate decision-maker over its whole inhabited surface.” [p.3] As an example of how the world fared under this anarchical reign, he could have pointed to the medieval Law Merchant, which served as international legal system that governed without the coercive power of a centralised political state. Likewise, its successor today, international commercial law “is still largely enforced without the backing of nation-states.” Bruce Benson claims that “The international Law Merchant can be viewed as a constitutionality established system of governance for the international business community . . . despite the lack of politically defined geographic boundaries and a centralised authority with coercive power to tax and punish.” The most significant contribution of the international Law Merchant lies in the development of arbitration between two businessmen of perhaps different nationalities, conducting business across two or more political boundaries.

The history of modern international commercial arbitration began in Paris, France under the auspices of the international Chamber of Commerce founded in 1921. The ICC International Court of Arbitration was established in 1923, and as of May 1994, had handled some 8000 cases involving international commercial disputes. The rules of the Chamber embrace a number of Law Merchant concepts. “The ICC rules provide that arbitrators should be selected from different national origins, thereby preserving an international flavour in dispute resolution. So, too, ICC arbitrators are required to be experts in commercial conciliation and in international arbitration, again reviving the commercial sophistication of the merchant judge. Finally, the ICC procedures provide for the speedy settlement of disputes through a flexible conciliation procedure, and, failing that, an adaptable arbitral process. Here, too, the ideal of an expeditious and low cost arbitration process is partially embodied in the ICC Rules.” The primary benefit of using ICC Rules, or the rules of some other arbitration agency, like the American Arbitration Association, is that the parties to a dispute do not have to create their own procedures in an ad hoc manner. The ICC Rules are widely publicised, predictable, and easily used. “The International Court of Arbitration administers and supervises ICC arbitrations from the introduction of a request for arbitration to the rendering of a final Award. Disputes are not settled by the Court itself but by independent arbitrators-appointed or confirmed by the Court-who deal with the merits of a case.” The Court of Arbitration serves to protect the integrity of the arbitral process, provides lists of qualified arbitrators, and reviews each award before it is finalised. The National Committees of Arbitration, which function under the ICC, often offer moral assistance in upholding ICC awards, and often form interarbitral agreements acceptable to their merchant members.

Jan Paulsson, a French practitioner of international arbitration, writing in the early 1980s claimed that over ninety percent of all arbitral awards issued under the auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce were complied with. Charles Carabiber in his article in Martin Domke’s collection, International Trade Arbitration (New York: 1958) noted that, “The private character of arbitration eliminates the possibility of statistics and consequently it is not generally known that 85% of [international] arbitral awards are complied with. This figure was obtained from information given by several arbitration centres of long standing.” [p.163] These ballpark estimates were further confirmed by Rene David, in a 1982 book review of his own book, “Arbitration in International Trade”, which appeared in The Art of Arbitration. Regarding compliance with international arbitral awards, David wrote:

Account must be taken, first of all, of the fact that parties to a contract do in most cases perform their duties under the contract without bothering what the law-any national law-says about the matter . . . The losing party will ordinarily voluntarily comply with the arbitration award. He may be dissatisfied, but his commercial reputation is at stake, good faith impels him also to comply; he will abstain from the niceties of some lawyer’s law which might perhaps allow him an opportunity to challenge the award. Ninety percent of the arbitral agreements are complied with; ninety percent of the awards are voluntarily performed without raising the question whether they would be enforceable or not “at law.” [p.91]

At the same time that the national movement for statutory arbitration was gaining ground in the United States, there was a similar movement among the major trading nations of the Western world. Under the guise of embracing international treaties to assure the enforcement of international arbitral awards, these nation-States attempted to retain control over the arbitral process. The Geneva Protocol on Arbitration Clauses of September 24, 1923, and the Geneva Convention on the Execution of Foreign Arbitral Awards of September 30,1927, were the results of these efforts. Essentially these international agreements provided that each contracting State “is required to recognise as binding and to enforce awards rendered in the territory of another contracting State.” Some of the difficulties encountered under these treaties were removed with the passage of the New York Convention of June 19,1958, sponsored by the United Nations. By 1982, nearly 60 nations had signed this document. The New York Convention severely restricted the reasons for questioning a foreign arbitral award by the judiciary of the country in which it was being enforced. “The onus of proving that the award is not enforceable is shifted to the defendant resisting enforcement under the New York Convention.”

Gotaverken versus General National Maritime


Three arbitral awards rendered in Paris, France on April 5, 1978 will serve to illustrate the working and rules of arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce, describe their relationship to the New York Convention of 1958, and highlight the issue of party autonomy, by which the arbitration process is divorced from State-made law. ICC case numbers 2977,2978, and 3033 involved the Swedish shipbuilder, Gotaverken Arendal AB (the large Gothenburg shipyard) and the buyer of three newly-constructed tankers, the General National Maritime Transport Company (later succeeded by the Libyan General Maritime Transport Organisation). The sales contracts included a clause, according to which “all disputes arising from or in connection with the present contract . . . shall be finally settled by arbitration . . . [to] be held in Paris and conducted in accordance with the Rules of Conciliation and Arbitration then in force of the International Chamber of Commerce. The award shall be final, binding . . . and each party agrees to abide by such decision . . . ” Construction on the vessels had begun after a $90 million down payment had been made. Upon completion, Libyan General refused to take delivery or pay the balance outstanding because 1) contract provisions prohibiting the use of components made in Israel had been violated, and 2) certain technical specifications had not been met. Gotaverken rejected these arguments and initiated arbitral proceedings in accord with the contract.

The dispute was submitted to ICC arbitration in Paris, and the arbitral tribunal was composed of a French chairman, a Norwegian, and a Libyan. By a two-to-one decision (which the Libyan arbitrator refused to sign), the tribunal rejected Libyan General’s claims. Libyan General was ordered to accept delivery of the ships and to pay the outstanding purchase price, less a reduction amounting to about two percent for deviations from specifications. When Libyan General would not voluntarily comply with the arbitral ruling, Gotaverken petitioned the Svea Court of Appeal for the enforcement of the award in Sweden. Libyan General opposed this request on the ground that it had already begun appeal proceedings in France. It had petitioned the Court of Appeal of Paris to set aside the award. When the Svea Court of Appeal upheld the arbitration, Libyan General then instituted an appeal to the Swedish Supreme Court, asking that the Svea Court’s judgment be set aside, or at least held in abeyance until the proceedings before the Court of Appeal of Paris had been decided.

The basis for the Libyan appeals was 1) under French national law governing arbitral awards, the mere fact that an application for setting aside the award was before the Courts caused the award to be temporarily suspended; 2) the arbitral award was self- contradictory in that it acknowledged the vessels failed to meet contract specifications, yet ordered Libyan General to take delivery; and 3) it would subject Libyan General to criminal sanctions in Libya for violation of boycott legislation; and finally 4) the arbitral decision violated the French public order “because it imposed on a foreign contracting party an obligation contrary to the imperative norms of its home country” (i.e., violation of the boycott law). Libyan General’s strategy was to challenge the award in France, and thereby argue “that the award was not binding anywhere pending its challenge before the courts in the country where it was rendered.”

The Svea Court of Appeals upheld the arbitral award in a decision issued December 13, 1978, and the Swedish Court of Appeals affirmed the Svea judgment on August 13, 1979. Both courts agreed that the French courts had no jurisdiction over the arbitration award, even though the arbitration proceedings had taken place on French soil. Article 11 of the ICC Rules (revised as of 1975) provided

The rules governing the proceedings before the arbitrator shall be those resulting from these Rules and, where these Rules are silent, any rules which the parties or, failing them, the arbitrator) may settle, and whether or not reference is thereby made to a municipal procedural law to be applied to the arbitration.

Thus, the Swedish courts concluded that “the challenged award was not French in nationality.” Under both the New York Convention of 1958 and the ICC Rules of arbitration, the law of the place of arbitration would control the proceedings only in the absence of a specific agreement by the parties. Since in this case the parties had agreed to ICC Rules, the municipal law of France did not apply. Consequently, both the Svea Court of Appeal and the Swedish Supreme Court based their “decision not to take jurisdiction on the principle that parties to international arbitral proceedings are free to select the legal order to which they wish to attach the proceedings, and this freedom extends to the exclusion of any national system of law.” Furthermore, they viewed the award as binding on the parties from the moment it was issued in Paris, and hence not appealable because “an award would not be binding if it were liable to an appeal.”

The appeal before the Court of appeal of Paris by Libyan General to set aside the ICC award was declared invalid in a judgment rendered February 21, 1980. The Court of Appeal pointed out that 1) none of the parties or the arbitrators had designated any procedural law to govern the arbitration; 2) therefore the only binding rules were those of the ICC; and 3) the arbitral award could not be considered a French award because there was no connecting link to the French legal system, because neither of the parties were French, nor was the contract to be performed on French soil; and 4) that under the New York Convention of 1958, the winning party need not “as a precondition to enforcement elsewhere, seek confirmation of the award by the courts of the country where it was rendered”; or conversely, the country of the seat of arbitration (in this case, France) need not recognise the arbitral award in order for it to be recognised and enforced elsewhere (in this case, in Sweden). The ultimate effect of all three court decisions (two in Sweden and one in France) was to allow Gotaverken to exercise its right of attachment over the three ships, and to proceed with a judicial auction of the ships in order to satisfy its lien against them.

Party autonomy or state control


The decision in the Gotaverken case set off a debate among lawyers, jurists, and academics because it presented the question of whether or not it was possible for parties to international arbitration agreements to structure the proceeding and the resulting award so as to be totally independent of the jurisdiction of any nation-state. Could the parties divorce themselves from State control by private agreement, even though their arbitration proceedings had to occur in the territory of some nation-state? Jan Paulsson came closest to supporting the voluntaryist position when he maintained that “the binding force of an international [arbitral] award [is] derived from the contractual commitment to arbitrate in and of itself that is to say, without a specific national legal system serving as its foundation.” Others, such as F. A. Mann, defended the statist position that nothing is legal except what the State permits. Mann maintained that in reality there was no such thing as international arbitration because every “international” arbitration was “subject to a specific system of national law.” As he explained:

No one has ever or anywhere been able to point to any provision or legal principle which we permit individuals to act outside the confines of a system of municipal law. Every arbitration is subject to the law of a given State. No private person has the right or the power to act on any level other than that of municipal law. Every right or power a private person enjoys is inexorably conferred by or derived from a system of municipal law . . . [p.160]

Mann presents some very fundamental questions about the nature of the State. “Is not every activity occurring on the territory of a State necessarily subject to its jurisdiction” even if the participants desire to remove themselves from its control? He admits that some States may give the parties more leeway in this regard, but he observes that no State has ever totally abdicated its control over what takes place in its geographic territory. Thus Mann concludes that “No act of the parties can have any legal effect except as the result of the sanction given to it by a [specific State’s] legal system.” [p.161] The principle of party autonomy is an illusion, and the municipal law of the seat of the arbitration must be the law governing the arbitral award. As he adds, “It would be intolerable if the country of the seat [of the arbitration] could not override whatever arrangements the parties may have made. The local sovereign does not yield to them except as the result of freedoms granted by himself.”

Jakubowski is another who concurs that, “States have adopted the principle of their exclusive jurisdiction to settle disputes between people,” but then admits that certain exceptions (one of them being arbitration) have been granted to non-State courts. He says that the State and State courts are clearly necessary, if for no other reason, than they provide the only final means of dispute settlement. As Jakubowski puts it:

Arbitration could act outside the limits of the State’s ‘concession’, but in such a case the winning party would depend for the performance of obligations established in the arbitral award, on the good will of the other party. Because of the uncertainty of whether the award will be carried out by the losing party, the guarantees of legislation and the assistance of the State are indispensable for arbitration. Practice has shown the limited effectiveness of social pressures (in international trade the pressure of business circles and professional organisations of businessmen, e.g., chambers of commerce) as a means of enforcing arbitral awards. [p.178]

Although Jakubowski’s evaluation of arbitration history clearly conflicts with that of Benson and Wooldridge, he at least grants that it is possible for transnational arbitration to function in a manner wholly divorced from the State, provided the arbitration process depends only on non-State enforcement mechanisms. Mann, on the other hand, upholds the supremacy of State law, even when the parties want nothing to do with it:

How do we, how do arbitrators, know that their decision, based on their standards of fairness, is [fairer] than the law? Absolute perfection not being attainable, it is infinitely more dangerous to allow discretion to arbitrators than to compel [the] parties to accept the law, its relative certainty, its authority and, above all, its nondiscriminatory character. The law is rarely an instrument of oppression. [p.176, emphasis added]

The law is always “an instrument of oppression” because, unlike arbitration, it does not require the consent of the parties. There is a need for the final and conclusive settlement of disputes, but it is a false assumption to behave that the coercive State is the only way to achieve this objective. The free market approach to this problem is to let the disputing parties themselves select from among competing agencies, all of which offer dispute settlement services. The voluntaryist position is that competing institutions of final dispute settlement would exist (and, in fact, have existed, as arbitration history proves), would not require the State to function, and that the State’s involvement in the process is not supportive, but only destructive.

“An institution of initiated force is not necessary to compel disputants to treat arbitration as binding. The principle of rational self-interest, on which the whole free market system is built, would accomplish this end quite effectively.” There is not only a moral satisfaction in acting out one’s honesty, but there is an economic benefit, too. Linda and Morris Tannehill point out:

Men who contract to abide by the decision of a neutral arbiter and then break that contract are obviously unreliable and too risky to do business with. Honest men, acting in their rational self-interest, would check the records of those they did business with and would avoid having dealings with any such individuals. This kind of informal business boycott would be extremely effective in a governmentless society . . . [p. 66]

In a society without a State, no judicial or arbitration agency would have compulsory jurisdiction, by which they could drag unwilling participants into court. Of course, it would be possible to try a defendant in absentia and issue a boycott judgment against a convicted party. The “convicted” would suffer as a result of the social consequences of his actions, even though no invasive force would be inflicted directly upon him.

The Tannehills have also pointed out that “a court system which has a monopoly guaranteed by the force of statutory law will not give as good quality service as will free market arbitration agencies which must compete for their customers.” This is similar to the observation made by Bruce Benson and others that under a customary law system, “the more effective institutional arrangements replace the less effective ones.” In other words, where customers are free to migrate between competing judicial and arbitration agencies, they will choose to patronise those that offer the best quality service at the lowest possible prices. As Bruce Benson explained in The Enterprise Of Law, “there appears to be substantial benefit from not having monopoly [as in a single legal system], just as there is for the production of all other goods and services.” [p.300]

Arbitration and the (voluntaryist) sources of law and order


Imagine for an instant, as William Vandersteel posited in No. 14 of The Voluntaryist, that you had to operate in both your social life and business life as though you had no State courts to resort to in the event that someone caused you a harm or failed to abide by their contractual agreements. You would not be able to employ coercive third party enforcement measures. Two countervailing tendencies would come into operation. First of all, you would be very careful with whom you had dealings. You would only want to interact with those who had a first-rate reputation and an honourable record of fulfilling their promises in all circumstances. Your second inclination would be to guard your own reputation to the utmost. “Individuals would strive always to act properly and with the highest integrity, knowing that any blemish on their reputation would virtually bar them from participating in any future business ventures.”

If we define customary law as a legal system which develops from the bottom up through voluntary arrangements, we will discover that such a system operates in much the same manner as envisioned by Vandersteel. Bruce Benson in his article “The Impetus for Recognising Private Property and Adopting Ethical Behaviour,” notes that among small groups of people who frequently interact, there is little need for formal institutional arrangements to insure credible behaviour. Everyone is knowledgeable about everyone else’s reputation. As the size of the group expands, the likelihood of dealing with someone whose reputation is not known is increased, as well as the probability that some person(s) might not fulfil their promises. “Therefore, for such expansion to occur, each party’s commitments to accept commonly accepted norms of behaviour must be credible.” [p.51]

If a dispute arises between people belonging to different mutual support groups, the disputants may either resort to violent self-help, abandon their claim against the other party, or attempt to negotiate a peaceful settlement. Mutual support groups, whether family, commercial, or social, not only strengthen the position of the solitary individual, but they also act as a means of sharing the expense of dispute settlement. Violence, whether individual or in concert with others, is almost always more expensive than a peaceful resolution. Thus “acceptance of nonviolent dispute resolution will become a customary obligation that is required for group membership,” and the “resort to violence without first trying to achieve a nonviolent solution will result in ostracism by the group.” [p.53]

Arbitration plays a pivotal and important part in this process of peaceful dispute settlement. Benson describes how boycott and ostracism work under the customary law, and it is readily apparent how this applies to arbitration in the absence of a State enforcement apparatus:

[C]ustomary law is tightly bound with all other aspects of life. Fear of this boycott sanction reinforces the self-interest motives associated with the maintenance of reputation and reciprocal arrangements. It also deters intentional offences. In other words, because each individual has made an investment in establishing himself as part of the community, (e.g., establishing a reputation), that investment can be “held hostage” by the community, in order to insure that the commitment to cooperate is credible. [p.54]

Under a customary law system, arbitration “decisions can be enforced without the backing of a centralised coercive authority.” [p.55] The key to dispute settlement process in customary law systems is that the loser must “buy back his reputation” by honouring the arbitral award. Failure to do so will result in his ostracism by the entire group. The individual is faced with the choice of living as a social outcast or honouring his commitment to abide by the result of the arbitration. Under such a system, the same incentives apply to the arbitrator as well as to the disputants. Arbitrators must be acceptable to both sides of a dispute.

The arbitrator’s “only real power is to persuasion” and he relies upon the consent of the parties, which he has obtained before hand, to insure that they will abide by his award. The arbitrator is concerned with the fairness of his judgement, since his own reputation and standing in the community are at stake if either party to the arbitration refuses to honour his decision.

Benson also demonstrates how the customary law of non-violent sanctions can operate among members of different support groups, where normally there would be little potential for the boycott sanction to be effectively applied by a member of one group against a member of another group. “Each individual must feel confident that someone from the other group will not be able to take advantage of him and then escape to the protection of that other group. Thus, some sort of intra-group insurance arrangement becomes desirable” and some sort of formalised dispute settlement apparatus is set up between the groups.

For instance, in order to develop a group’s reputation the membership might bond all members in the sense that they will guarantee payment if a member is judged to be in the wrong in a dispute with someone from the other group. The mutual support group becomes a surety group as well. Membership in a group then serves as a signal of reputable behaviour to members of another group, and lack of membership serves as a signal that an individual may not be reputable [or at least that he has no surety backing]. Furthermore, if a member of one group cannot or will not pay off a debt to someone in the other group, [as] established by an acceptable arbitrator, then the debtor’s group as a whole will [pay the debt] in order to maintain the benefits of the group’s reputation. And as a consequence, the individual for whom the group has had to pay will owe his own group members rather than someone from a separate group. [This is known as subrogation in the contemporary insurance industry. Letters of credit in the banking industry serve the same purpose.] In this way the boycott threat comes into play once again. Members of a group are not going to continue bonding an individual who generates debts to the group’s membership but does not pay them off. [By this process of subrogation, the] large long-term benefits of intra-group interaction [and] the self interest incentives to maintain intra-group relationships come [back] into play. [p.62]

How effective are these non-State sanctions? How do shunning, excommunication and the boycott operate? In his book, What is Mutualism? (1927), Clarence Lee Swartz wrote:

Under certain circumstances the boycott and its companion, ostracism, may constitute a most drastic penalty. On account of the gregarious habits of human beings, to be put wholly beyond the pale of society would be more painful to many than to be incarcerated in a prison with others . . . It is simple; it is easily and inexpensively applied; it involves, theoretically, none of the elements of physical force; and, above all, it is not an invasive act. What more ideal method of correcting the erring tendencies and antisocial activities of our fellow-men can be conceived? [pp.165-166]

Certainly these observations are true with respect to one of the best known historical examples of excommunication, which involved Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) in 1656. Spinoza’s excommunication, known in Hebrew as a ‘kherem’or’herem’, was pronounced by the Jewish rabbis of Amsterdam because he denied the existence of angels, “the immortality of the soul, and Gods authorship of the Torah.” No Jew was to conduct business with him, stand within four paces of him, or even speak to him. The decree of kherem meant”the virtual expulsion of the person upon whom it was inflicted,” and his exclusion “from the religious and social life of the community.” Recognising the severity of the consequences, the Rabbinic authorities did not permit its use except in the most serious cases.

The Jewish custom of “Kherem” is also the underlying basis for the everyday functioning of the world’s diamond bourses. Jews have been involved in the diamond trade since the Middle Ages, congregating in Antwerp and Amsterdam, after they were expelled from Spain in 1492. “The diamond industry has systematically rejected state created law.” In its stead, a highly sophisticated system of private governance has evolved which relies upon mandatory pre-arbitration conciliation and arbitration. There is a striking parallel between Orthodox “Jewish law and the modern organisation of the diamond industry.” As Lisa Bernstein has noted:

[U]nder Jewish law, a Jew is forbidden to voluntarily go into the courts of non-Jews to resolve commercial disputes with another Jew. Should he do so, he is to be ridiculed and shamed. Jewish law also provides rules governing the making of oral contracts and lays down rules for conducting commercial arbitration. In the diamond industry, Jewish law provided a code of commercial fair dealing that gradually adapted to meet the industry’s changing needs; yet, even as the force of religious law broke down, the system remained strong. [p.141]

Even today, “the largest and most important” diamond bourse in the United States, the New York Diamond Dealers Club, has a large Jewish membership. Each member, upon joining, agrees “to submit all disputes arising from the diamond business between himself and another member to the club’s arbitration system,” which is final, binding, and non-appealable to the New York State courts. Should a member violate this agreement, the Club’s Floor Committee will impose either a fine or expulsion. In the latter case, the errant member’s name and photo are posted in bourses all over the world, so that he is effectively prevented from participating in the foreign diamond trade. The New York Diamond Dealers Club, in turn, is affiliated with the World Federation of Diamond Bourses, which is an organisation composed of the world’s twenty diamond bourses. Each of these courses extends trading privileges to members in-good-standing in their local diamond trading club. “As a condition of membership in the federation, each bourse is required to enforce the arbitration judgments of all member bourses.” In addition, the World Federation maintains its own board of arbitrators, which is responsible for settling disputes between two or more bourses themselves; and for determining which bourse should hear an arbitration case when the parties to it are members of different bourses.

Conclusion


Arbitration is a universal, human institution which preceded the monopoly system of law embraced by contemporary nation-states. Arbitral anarchy has threatened State supremacy because it offers businessmen or others disaffected with the State legal system a way of solving their problems without involving the State. As Steven Lazarus put it, arbitration offers a “mechanism by which the debilitating forces of legalistic sovereignty can be circumvented.” [p.174] Throughout history, arbitration has been the hallmark of all customary law systems. The practices of the Law Merchant prove beyond doubt “that custom may have the force of law, as a means of social discipline, although it does not rest on the will of the political sovereign, but on objective standards of reason.”

Arbitration is a purely voluntaryist means of settling societal disputes. In an interesting insight on means and ends, Bruce Benson, Murray Rothbard, and others have noted that customary law and the private sector must provide the underlying foundation of property rights for the free market system. It is impossible in the nature of things for a compulsory, monopoly legal system to supply the laws required by a totally competitive system. “Politically dictated rules” and statutory law are “not designed to support the market system; in fact, government-made law is likely to do precisely the opposite.” A coercive, non-competitive judicial system simply cannot be made to define property rights because it is based upon the supremacy of the political sovereign. In its absence, a customary law system based on private property and personal property rights would evolve, and arbitration would become one of the major ways of settling disputes.

Joseph Jenkins in his article, “The Peacemakers,” highlights the importance of arbitration to humankind. He says that “if men are ever to realise their potentials, they must master the art of living together peacefully . . . They must devise means of settling their differences by words instead of swords or . . . warfare . . . [I]t seems . . . that when the concepts of conciliation, mediation, and arbitration were introduced into human society, an immense stride was made in the problem of enabling people to live peacefully together.” He calls arbitrators ‘peacemakers’ “because they have it within their power to contribute more to the maintenance of good relations between conflicting forces in our society than any other group, . . . ” Mankind “must be mature enough and wise enough to solve their problems without government . . . This is the very essence of self-government” and voluntaryism. [pp.436 and 467]

Bibliography


Bruce Benson, The Enterprise Of Law: Justice without The State, San Francisco Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1990.

Bruce Benson, “The Impetus for Recognising Private Property and Adopting Ethical Behaviour in a Market Economy: Natural Law, Government Law, or Evolving Self-Interest,” 6 Review Of Austrian Economics, 1993, pp.43-80.

Lisa Bernstein, “Opting Out of the Legal System: Extralegal Contractual Relations in the Diamond Industry,” 21 Journal Of Legal Studies, 1992, pp.115-157.

Mauro Ferrante, “About the nature of (national or a-national, contractual or jurisdictional) of ICC awards under the New York Convention,” in Schultz and Van Den Berg, pp. 129-141.

Jerzy Jakubowski, “Reflections on the philosophy of international commercial arbitration and conciliation,” in Schultz and Van Den Berg, pp. 175-176.

Joseph Jenkins, “The Peacemakers,” 47 Georgetown Law Journal, 1959, pp. 435-473.

F. A. Mann, “‘Lex Facit Arbitrum’,” in Pieter Sanders (ed.), International Arbitration Liber Amicorum For Martin Domke, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967, pp. 157-183.

Jan Paulsson, “Arbitration Unbound: Award Detached From the Law of Its Country of Origin,” 30 International And Comparative Law Quarterly, April 1981, pp. 358-387.

Jan C. Schultz and Albert Van Den Berg (eds.), The Art Of Arbitration, Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1982.

Morris and Linda Tannehill, The Market For Liberty, Lansing: By the authors, 1970.

William C. Wooldridge, Uncle Sam The Monopoly Man, New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1970.

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Enabling individuals to free themselves. Permitir a las personas liberarse. Permettre aux individus de se libérer. Permitir que os indivíduos se libertem. Einzelpersonen befähigen sich zu befreien.

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A definition of freedom Una definición de libertad Une définition de la liberté Uma definição de liberdade Eine definition von freiheit A monopoly on violence Un monopolio sobre la violencia Un monopole sur la violence Um monopólio da violência Ein gewaltmonopol A university built by the invisible hand Una universidad construida por la mano invisible Une université construite par la main invisible Uma universidade construída pela mão invisível Eine universität die von der unsichtbaren hand gebaut wurde Abstain from beans Abstenerse de frijoles S’abstenir de haricots Abster-se de feijão Verzichten sie auf bohnen Activities Activities Activities Activities Activities Against all nations and borders Contra todas las naciones y fronteras Contre toutes les nations et frontières Contra todas as nações e fronteiras Gegen alle nationen und grenzen Against authority Contra la autoridad Contre l’autorité Contra autoridade Gegen autorität Against woman suffrage Contra el sufragio femenino Contre le suffrage des femmes Contra o sufrágio feminino Gegen das frauenwahlrecht Altruism does not exist El altruismo no existe L’altruisme n’existe pas O altruísmo não existe Altruismus gibt es nicht An anti-capitalism anarcho-capitalist Un anticapitalismo anarcocapitalista Un anarcho-capitaliste anti-capitalisme Um anticapitalismo anarcocapitalista Ein antikapitalistischer anarcho-kapitalist An apolitical approach to libertarianism Un enfoque apolítico del libertarismo Une approche apolitique du libertarianisme Uma abordagem apolítica do libertarianismo Eine unpolitische herangehensweise an den libertarismus An experiment Un experimento Une expérience Um experimento Ein experiment An individualist formulation of collectivist property Una formulación individualista de la propiedad colectivista Une formulation individualiste de la propriété collectiviste Uma formulação individualista da propriedade coletivista Eine individualistische formulierung von kollektivistischem eigentum Anarchism and atheism, theism and statism La verdadera historia de la ética Anarchisme et athéisme, théisme et étatisme Anarquismo e ateísmo, teísmo e estatismo Anarchismus und atheismus, theismus und statismus Anarchism as scepticism El anarquismo como escepticismo L’anarchisme comme scepticisme Anarquismo como ceticismo Anarchismus als skepsis Anarchy and the problem of the commons La anarquía y el problema de los bienes comunes L’anarchie et le problème des communs Anarquia e o problema dos bens comuns Anarchie und das problem der commons Anatomy of the state Anatomia del estado Anatomie de l’état Anatomia do estado Anatomie des staates Animatr Animatr Animatr Animatr Animatr Anthem Himno Hymne Hino Hymne Anyone for war? ¿Alguien para la guerra? Quelqu’un pour la guerre? Alguém para a guerra? Jemand für den krieg? Battleships and schools Acorazados y escuelas Cuirassés et écoles Battleships e escolas Schlachtschiffe und schulen Beyond patriarchy: A libertarian model of the family Más allá del patriarcado: Un modelo libertario de la familia Au-delà du patriarcat: Un modèle libertaire de la famille Além do patriarcado: Um modelo libertário da família Jenseits des patriarchats: Ein libertäres modell der familie Beyond the boss: Protection from business in a free nation Más allá del jefe: Protección de los negocios en una nación libre Au-delà du patron: Protection contre les affaires dans une nation libre Além do chefe: Proteção dos negócios em uma nação livre Jenseits des chefs: Schutz vor geschäften in einer freien nation Books Books Books Books Books Boot Boot Boot Boot Boot Borders Fronteras Les frontières Fronteiras Grenzen Bubblegum money Dinero de chicle Argent bubblegum Dinheiro bubblegum Bubblegum geld But that would be anarchy! ¡Pero eso sería anarquía! Mais ce serait l’anarchie! Mas isso seria anarquia! Aber das wäre anarchie! Caging the beasts Enjaulando a las bestias Mise en cage des bêtes Enjaulando os animais Käfig die bestien Calculator Calculator Calculator Calculator Calculator Calendars Calendars Calendars Calendars Calendars Camera Camera Camera Camera Camera Can voluntaryism fix the machine? ¿Puede el voluntariado arreglar la máquina? Le volontariat peut-il réparer la machine? O voluntariado pode consertar a máquina? Kann freiwilligkeit die maschine reparieren? Capitalism Capitalismo Capitalisme Capitalismo Kapitalismus Capitalism versus statism Capitalismo versus estatismo Capitalisme contre étatisme Capitalismo versus estatismo Kapitalismus versus statismus Captain Davies and Private Slovik Capitán Davies y Soldado Slovik Capitaine Davies et Soldat Slovik Capitão Davies e Soldado Particular Slovik Kapitän Davies und Private Slovik Checks and balances: Two kinds Verificaciones y saldos: Dos tipos Contrôles et soldes: Deux types Cheques e saldos: Dois tipos Checks and balances: Zwei arten Children Niños Les enfants Crianças Kinder Children and the family Los niños y la familia Les enfants et la famille Crianças e família Kinder und die familie Christopher Hitchens on evidence Christopher Hitchens en evidencia Christopher Hitchens en preuve Christopher Hitchens em evidência Christopher Hitchens über beweise Code Code Code Code Code Competition and cooperation Competencia y cooperación Concurrence et coopération Concorrência e cooperação Wettbewerb und zusammenarbeit Contacts Contacts Contacts Contacts Contacts Controls Controls Controls Controls Controls Counter the state Contrarrestar el estado Contre l’état Contador do estado Gegen den staat Coverage but not care Cobertura pero no importa Couverture mais pas attention Cobertura, mas não me importo Abdeckung, aber egal Creativity apps Creatividad apps La créativité apps Criatividade apps Kreativität apps Day of infamy: July 26th, 1941 Día de la infamia: 26 de Julio de 1941 Jour d’infamie: 26 Juillet 1941 Dia da infâmia: 26 de Julho de 1941 Tag der schande: 26 Juli 1941 Define your terms: Capitalism Define tus términos: Capitalismo Définissez vos termes: Capitalisme Defina seus termos: Capitalismo Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Kapitalismus Define your terms: Corporatism Define tus términos: Corporativismo Définissez vos termes: Corporatisme Defina seus termos: Corporativismo Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Korporatismus Define your terms: State Define tus términos: Estado Définissez vos termes: Etat Defina seus termos: Estado Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Staat Define your terms: Statism Define tus términos: Estatismo Définissez vos termes: Statisme Defina seus termos: Statism Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Statismus Define your terms: Voluntaryism Define tus términos: Voluntariado Définissez vos termes: Volontariat Defina seus termos: Voluntariado Definieren sie Ihre begriffe: Freiwilligkeit Democracy is impossible La democracia es imposible La démocratie est impossible Democracia é impossível Demokratie ist unmöglich Democracy is slavery La democracia es esclavitud La démocratie est l’esclavage Democracia é escravidão Demokratie ist sklaverei Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Dictionary Discs Discs Discs Discs Discs Disproving the state Refutando el estado La réfutation de l’état Desprovando o estado Den staat widerlegen Dock Dock Dock Dock Dock Does money inspire us to cooperate? ¿El dinero nos inspira a cooperar? L’argent nous inspire-t-il à coopérer? O dinheiro nos inspira a cooperar? Inspiriert uns geld zur zusammenarbeit? Does spanking violate the non-aggression principle? ¿Las nalgadas violan el principio de no agresión? La fessée viole-t-elle le principe de non-agression? A surra viola o princípio da não agressão? Verstößt spanking gegen das nichtangriffsprinzip? Economics Económicas Économie Economia Wirtschaft Education Educación Éducation Educação Bildung Eight dangerous myths about spanking Ocho mitos peligrosos sobre las nalgadas Huit mythes dangereux sur la fessée Oito mitos perigosos sobre surras Acht gefährliche mythen über prügel Environment Medio ambiente Environnement Meio Ambiente Umgebung Ethics Ética Éthique Ética Ethik Ethics, human nature, and government Ética, naturaleza humana, y gobierno. Éthique, nature humaine, et gouvernement Ética, natureza humana, e governo Ethik, menschliche natur, und regierung Existence, logic, evidence, and truth Existencia, lógica, evidencia y verdad Existence, logique, évidence et vérité Existência, lógica, evidência e verdade Existenz, logik, beweise und wahrheit Family Familia Famille Família Familie Files Files Files Files Files Filmeditr Filmeditr Filmeditr Filmeditr Filmeditr Fonts Fonts Fonts Fonts Fonts Forget the argument from efficiency Olvida el argumento de la eficiencia Oubliez l’argument de l’efficacité Esqueça o argumento da eficiência Vergessen sie das argument der effizienz Free association Asociación libre Association libre Associação livre Freie vereinigung Free body Cuerpo libre Corps libre Corpo livre Freier körper Free families to statist societies and back again Familias gratuitas a sociedades estatistas y viceversa Libérer les familles des sociétés d’état et inversement Famílias livres para sociedades estatistas e vice-versa Freie familien zu statistischen gesellschaften und wieder zurück Free markets and monopoly Mercados libres y monopolio Marchés libres et monopole Mercados livres e monopólio Freie märkte und monopol Free mind Mente libre Esprit libre Mente livre Freigeist Free trade Libre comercio Libre échange Livre comércio Freihandel Freedom on a leash Libertad con correa Liberté en laisse Liberdade na coleira Freiheit an der leine Freedom to chose your own money Libertad para elegir tu propio dinero Liberté de choisir son propre argent Liberdade para escolher seu próprio dinheiro Freiheit dein eigenes geld zu wählen Freedom, liberty, peace, happiness, and prosperity Libertad, libertad, paz, felicidad y prosperidad Liberté, liberté, paix, bonheur et prospérité Liberdade, liberdade, paz, felicidade e prosperidade Freiheit, freiheit, frieden, glück und wohlstand Freedom, reason, and cults Libertad, razón y cultos Liberté, raison et cultes Liberdade, razão e cultos Freiheit, vernunft und kulte Funding public goods: Six solutions Financiación de bienes públicos: Seis soluciones Financement des biens publics: Six solutions Financiamento de bens públicos: Seis soluções Finanzierung öffentlicher güter: Sechs lösungen Games Games Games Games Games Government Gobierno Gouvernement Governo Regierung Government as rape Gobierno como violación Le gouvernement comme viol Governo como estupro Regierung als vergewaltigung Government control of immigration: Is it a violation of individual sovereignty? Control gubernamental de la inmigración: ¿es una violación de la soberanía individual? Contrôle gouvernemental de l’immigration: est-ce une violation de la souveraineté individuelle? Controle governamental da imigração: É uma violação da soberania individual? Kontrolle der einwanderung durch die regierung: Handelt es sich um eine verletzung der individuellen souveränität? Green rising: The dangers of political environmentalism Levantamiento verde: Los peligros del ambientalismo político Levée verte: Les dangers de l’environnementalisme politique Crescimento verde: Os perigos do ambientalismo político Grüner aufstieg: Die gefahren des politischen umweltschutzes Hard money in the voluntaryist tradition Dinero duro en la tradición voluntarista De l’argent dur dans la tradition du volontariat Dinheiro duro na tradição voluntária Hartes geld in der freiwilligen tradition Health Salud Santé Saúde Gesundheit Health care: An anarchist approach Cuidado de la salud: Un enfoque anarquista Soins de santé: Une approche anarchiste Cuidados de saúde: Uma abordagem anarquista Gesundheitsversorgung: Ein anarchistischer ansatz Healthcare is a right? La asistencia sanitaria es un derecho? La santé est un droit? Saúde é um direito? Gesundheitswesen ist ein recht? Home Home Home Home Home Home is best El hogar es lo mejor La maison est la meilleure Lar é o melhor Zuhause ist am besten How can governments be abolished? ¿Cómo se pueden abolir los gobiernos? Comment les gouvernements peuvent-ils être abolis? Como os governos podem ser abolidos? Wie können regierungen abgeschafft werden? How free is the “free market”? ¿Qué tan libre es el “mercado libre”? Le “marché libre” est-il gratuit? Quão livre é o “mercado livre”? Wie frei ist der “freie Markt”? How government solved the health care crisis Cómo el gobierno resolvió la crisis de salud Comment le gouvernement a résolu la crise des soins de santé Como o governo resolveu a crise da saúde Wie die regierung die gesundheitskrise gelöst hat How the free market works Cómo funciona el mercado libre Comment fonctionne le marché libre Como funciona o mercado livre Wie der freie markt funktioniert How the state destroys social cooperation Cómo el estado destruye la cooperación social Comment l’état détruit la coopération sociale Como o Estado destrói a cooperação social Wie der staat die soziale zusammenarbeit zerstört How the state thrives, how the state fails Cómo prospera el estado, cómo falla el estado Comment l’état prospère, comment l’état échoue Como o estado prospera, como o estado falha Wie der staat gedeiht, wie der staat versagt How to establish a government Cómo establecer un gobierno Comment établir un gouvernement Como estabelecer um governo Wie man eine regierung gründet How to prevent violent criminal behaviour in the next generation Cómo prevenir el comportamiento criminal violento en la próxima generación Comment prévenir les comportements criminels violents dans la prochaine génération Como evitar comportamentos criminosos violentos na próxima geração Wie man gewalttätiges kriminelles verhalten in der nächsten generation verhindert Human nature La naturaleza humana Nature humaine Natureza humana Menschliche natur i suport publick skools apoyo a publick skools je soutiens les écoles publick eu apoio skools publick ich unterstütze publick skools I, Pencil Yo, Lápiz Moi, Crayon Eu Lápis Ich, Bleistift Ignorance of the law is an excuse La ignorancia de la ley es una excusa L’ignorance de la loi est une excuse A ignorância da lei é uma desculpa Unwissenheit über das gesetz ist eine entschuldigung Immigration: Anarchy worked Inmigración: La anarquía funcionó Immigration: L’anarchie a fonctionné Imigração: Anarquia trabalhou Einwanderung: Anarchie hat funktioniert Importing freedom Importando libertad Importer la liberté Importando liberdade Freiheit importieren In defence of anarchism En defensa del anarquismo Pour la défense de l’anarchisme Em defesa do anarquismo Zur verteidigung des anarchismus In defence of organ-legging En defensa de las piernas de órganos En défense du legging d’orgue Em defesa da legging de órgãos Zur verteidigung von organbeinen In search of the super villain En busca del super villano À la recherche du super méchant Em busca do super vilão Auf der suche nach dem superschurken Individual liberty Libertad individual Liberté individuelle Liberdade individual Individuelle freiheit Internet apps Internet apps l’Internet apps Internet apps Internet apps Interventionism Intervencionismo Interventionnisme Intervencionismo Interventionismus Is evil necessary? ¿Es necesario el mal? Le mal est-il nécessaire? O mal é necessário? Ist das böse notwendig? Is laissez faire capitalism exploitative? ¿El capitalismo de laissez faire es explotador? Le capitalisme du laissez-faire est-il exploiteur? O capitalismo do laissez faire é explorador? Ist der laissez-faire-kapitalismus ausbeuterisch? Is voting an act of violence? ¿Es votar un acto de violencia? Le vote est-il un acte de violence? O voto é um ato de violência? Ist das wählen ein akt der gewalt? Judeo-Christian morality versus the free society La moral Judeocristiana frente a la sociedad libre Moralidade Judaico-Cristã versus sociedade livre Moralidade Judaico-Cristã versus sociedade livre Jüdisch-Christliche moral gegen die freie gesellschaft Justice Justicia Justice Justiça Gerechtigkeit Keep calm and forever libertarian Mantén la calma y por siempre libertario Restez calme et libertaire pour toujours Mantenha a calma e sempre libertário Bleib ruhig und für immer libertär Kill private capital, kill civilisation Mata capital privado, mata civilización Tuez des capitaux privés, tuez la civilisation Matar capital privado, matar civilização Töte privates kapital, töte die zivilisation Law enforcement socialism Socialismo de aplicación de la ley Socialisme répressif Socialismo policial Strafverfolgungssozialismus Law, property rights, and air pollution Ley, derechos de propiedad y contaminación del aire Loi, droits de propriété et pollution atmosphérique Lei, direitos de propriedade e poluição do ar Recht, eigentumsrechte und luftverschmutzung Libertarian anarchism: Responses to ten objections Anarquismo libertario: Respuestas a diez objeciones Anarchisme libertaire: Réponses à dix objections Anarquismo libertário: Respostas a dez objeções Libertärer anarchismus: Antworten auf zehn einwände Liberty as a lack of unchosen positive obligations La libertad como falta de obligaciones positivas no elegidas La liberté comme un manque d’obligations positives non choisies Liberdade como falta de obrigações positivas não escolhidas Freiheit als mangel an nicht gewählten positiven verpflichtungen Liberty for all means immigrants too Libertad para todos significa inmigrantes también La liberté pour tous signifie aussi l’immigration Liberdade para todos os meios também imigrantes Freiheit für alle bedeutet auch einwanderer Limited government Gobierno limitado Gouvernement limité Governo limitado Begrenzte regierung Limited government — A moral issue? Gobierno limitado: ¿Un problema moral? Un gouvernement limité — Une question morale? Governo limitado — Uma questão moral? Begrenzte Regierung — Eine moralische frage? Login Login Login Login Login Mail Mail Mail Mail Mail Man, family, and state Hombre, familia y estado Homme, famille et état Homem, família e estado Mann, familie und staat Maps Maps Maps Maps Maps Market Mercado Marché Mercado Markt Market anarchism versus market statism Anarquismo de mercado versus estatismo de mercado L’anarchisme de marché contre l’étatisme de marché Anarquismo de mercado versus estatismo de mercado Marktanarchismus versus marktstatismus Market prices — Purpose versus arbitrariness Precios de mercado — Propósito versus arbitrariedad Prix du marché — But contre arbitraire Preços de mercado — Finalidade versus arbitrariedade Marktpreise — Zweck versus willkür Marx as utopian Marx como utópico Marx comme utopiste Marx como utópico Marx als utopist Messages Messages Messages Messages Messages Meth and other drug war facts Metanfetamina y otros hechos de la guerra contra las drogas Meth et autres faits sur la guerre contre la drogue Metanfetamina e outros fatos da guerra às drogas Meth und andere fakten zum drogenkrieg Minarchism Minarquismo Minarchisme Minarquismo Minarchismus Minarchism versus anarchism Minarquismo versus anarquismo Minarchisme contre anarchisme Minarquismo versus anarquismo Minarchismus gegen anarchismus Minarchism: Ethically self-contradictory Minarquismo: Éticamente autocontradictorio Minarchisme: Éthiquement contradictoire Minarquismo: Éticamente auto-contraditório Minarchismus: Ethisch widersprüchlich Money Dinero Argent Dinheiro Geld Multimedia apps Multimedia apps Multimédia apps Multimídia apps Multimedia apps Music Music Music Music Music Natural law La Ley natural Loi naturelle Lei natural Naturgesetz Neither tax nor punishment Ni impuestos ni castigos Ni impôt ni punition Nem imposto nem punição Weder steuern noch strafen News News News News News Minarchism versus anarchism Sin gobernantes Pas de dirigeants Sem réguas Keine herrscher No treason: The constitution of no authority Sin traición: La constitución de ninguna autoridad Pas de trahison: La constitution d’aucune autorité Sem traição: A constituição de nenhuma autoridade Kein verrat: Die verfassung ohne autorität Notes Notes Notes Notes Notes Notifications Notifications Notifications Notifications Notifications Objective morality Moralidad objetiva Moralité objective Moralidade objetiva Objektive moral Objects are morally neutral Los objetos son moralmente neutros Les objets sont moralement neutres Objetos são moralmente neutros Objekte sind moralisch neutral On human nature Sobre la naturaleza humana Sur la nature humaine Sobre a natureza humana Über die menschliche natur On overcoming scarcity Sobre la superación de la escasez Surmonter la pénurie Superando a escassez Über die überwindung der knappheit On slavery in a free market Sobre la esclavitud en un mercado libre Sur l’esclavage dans un marché libre Sobre a escravidão em um mercado livre Über die sklaverei in einem freien markt On the meaning of voting Sobre el significado de votar Sur le sens du vote Sobre o significado da votação Über die bedeutung der abstimmung On the need for a final arbiter Sobre la necesidad de un árbitro final Sur la nécessité d'un arbitre final Sobre a necessidade de um árbitro final Über die notwendigkeit eines endgültigen schiedsrichters On the rule of law Sobre el estado de derecho Sur l’état de droit Sobre o estado de direito Rechtsstaatlichkeit On voting En la votación Sur le vote Na votação Bei der abstimmung Only cowards vote Solo los cobardes votan Seuls les lâches votent Somente covardes votam Nur feiglinge stimmen ab Ownership of the product by capitalists Propiedad del producto por los capitalistas Propriété du produit par les capitalistes Propriedade do produto pelos capitalistas Eigentum des produkts durch kapitalisten Pages Pages Pages Pages Pages Phone Phone Phone Phone Phone Photos Photos Photos Photos Photos Pixelatr Pixelatr Pixelatr Pixelatr Pixelatr Plain talk about spanking Hablar claro de azotes Parler clairement de la fessée Discussão simples sobre palmada Einfach über spanking reden Podcasts Podcasts Podcasts Podcasts Podcasts Politics is the opiate of the masses La política es el opio de las masas La politique est l’opium des masses A política é o ópio das massas Politik ist das opiat der massen Positive “rights” “Derechos” positivos Des “droits” positifs “Direitos” positivos Positive “rechte” Power Poder Puissance Poder Leistung Pragmatic utilitarianism: A road to tyranny Utilitarismo pragmático: Un camino hacia la tiranía Utilitarisme pragmatique: Un chemin vers la tyrannie Utilitarismo pragmático: Um caminho para a tirania Pragmatischer utilitarismus: Ein weg zur tyrannei Principles, freedom, and you Principios, libertad y tu Principes, liberté et vous Princípios, liberdade e você Prinzipien, freiheit und du Private charity versus “public welfare” Caridad privada versus “bienestar público” Charité privée contre “bien-être public” Caridade privada versus “bem-estar público” Private Wohltätigkeit versus “Gemeinwohl” Private property or possession: A synthesis Propiedad o posesión privada: Una síntesis Propriété ou possession privée: Une synthèse Propriedade ou posse privada: Uma síntese Privateigentum oder besitz: Eine synthese Productivity apps Productividad apps Productivité apps Produtividade apps Produktivität apps Publishr Publishr Publishr Publishr Publishr Punishment versus restitution: A formulation Castigo versus restitución: Una formulación Punition contre restitution: Une formulation Punição versus restituição: Uma formulação Bestrafung versus wiedergutmachung: Eine formulierung Pursuing justice in a free society Persiguiendo la justicia en una sociedad libre Poursuivre la justice dans une société libre Buscar a justiça em uma sociedade livre Streben nach gerechtigkeit in einer freien gesellschaft Religion Religión Religion Religião Religion Religion Religión Religion Religião Religion Reminders Reminders Reminders Reminders Reminders Resist injustice Resistir la injusticia Résister à l'injustice Resistir à injustiça Widerstehen sie der ungerechtigkeit Resist untruth Resistir la mentira Résister au mensonge Resista à mentira Widerstehen sie der unwahrheit The state: A review El estado: Una revisión L’état: Un bilan O estado: Uma revisão Der staat: Eine überprüfung Review: Universally Preferable Behaviour Revisión: Comportamiento Universalmente Preferible Révision: Comportement Universellement Préférable Revisão: Comportamento Universalmente Preferível Rückblick: Allgemein Bevorzugtes Verhalten Ricky Gervais on offence Ricky Gervais en ataque Ricky Gervais en attaque Ricky Gervais no ataque Ricky Gervais in der offensive Right, wrong, and the difference Bien, mal y la diferencia Bien, mal et la différence Certo, errado e a diferença Richtig, falsch und der unterschied Rights Derechos Droits Direitos Rechte Roads to serfdom Caminos a la servidumbre Les routes du servage Estradas para a servidão Wege zur leibeigenschaft Secular deities and the problem of humanism Deidades seculares y el problema del humanismo Divinités laïques et problème de l’humanisme Deidades seculares e o problema do humanismo Weltliche gottheiten und das problem des humanismus Self-ownership Propiedad propia Propriété de soi Propriedade própria Eigenverantwortung Settings Settings Settings Settings Settings Sheets Sheets Sheets Sheets Sheets Slavery contracts and inalienable rights: A formulation Contratos de esclavitud y derechos inalienables: Una formulación Contrats d’esclavage et droits inaliénables: Une formulation Contratos de escravidão e direitos inalienáveis: Uma formulação Sklaverei-verträge und unveräußerliche rechte: Eine formulierung Slides Slides Slides Slides Slides Socialism of the right Socialismo de la derecha Socialisme de droite Socialismo de direita Sozialismus der rechten Society in jail Sociedad en la carcel Société en prison Sociedade na cadeia Gesellschaft im gefängnis Society without a state Sociedad sin estado Société sans état Sociedade sem estado Gesellschaft ohne staat Soundtrakr Soundtrakr Soundtrakr Soundtrakr Soundtrakr Stateless dictatorships: How a free society prevents the re-emergence of a government Dictaduras sin estado: Cómo una sociedad libre evita el resurgimiento de un gobierno Dictatures apatrides: Comment une société libre empêche la réémergence d’un gouvernement Ditaduras apátridas: Como uma sociedade livre impede o ressurgimento de um governo Staatenlose diktaturen: Wie eine freie gesellschaft das wiederauftauchen einer regierung verhindert Stateless not lawless: Voluntaryism and arbitration Apátridas no sin ley: Voluntariado y arbitraje Apatrides pas sans loi: Volontariat et arbitrage Apátrida, não ilegal: Voluntariado e arbitragem Staatenlos nicht gesetzlos: Freiwilligkeit und schiedsgerichtsbarkeit Statist reasoning: Non-freedom for non-voters Razonamiento estadístico: No libertad para los no votantes Raisonnement étatique: Non-liberté pour les non-votants Raciocínio estatista: Não-liberdade para não-eleitores Statistische argumentation: Nichtfreiheit für nichtwähler Statist reasoning: Not me, but everybody else Razonamiento estadístico: No yo, sino todos los demás Raisonnement étatiste: Pas moi, mais tout le monde Raciocínio estatista: Não eu, mas todo mundo Statistische argumentation: Nicht ich, sondern alle anderen Stay positive Mantente positivo Reste positif Se mantenha positivo Bleib positiv Store Store Store Store Store Strong atheism Fuerte ateísmo Athéisme fort Ateísmo forte Starker atheismus Switch Switch Switch Switch Switch Symptoms of government meddling in health care Síntomas de intromisión del gobierno en la atención médica Symptômes d’ingérence du gouvernement dans les soins de santé Sintomas de intromissão do governo nos cuidados de saúde Symptome einer einmischung der regierung in die gesundheitsversorgung Tangled as political allegory Enredado como alegoría política Emmêlé comme allégorie politique Emaranhado como alegoria política Wirren als politische allegorie Tax is theft! Imposto é roubo! La taxe, c’est du vol! Imposto é roubo! Steuer ist diebstahl! Taxation Impuestos Imposition Imposto Besteuerung Taxation is robbery Los impuestos son robos La fiscalité est un vol Tributação é roubo Besteuerung ist raub Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terminal Terrorists at the gate Terroristas en la puerta Terroristes à la porte Terroristas no portão Terroristen am tor Test Prueba Tester Teste Prüfung The age of the suitcase nuke La edad de la maleta nuclear L’âge de la valise nuke A idade das armas nucleares da mala Das Alter der koffernuke The anarchism and minarchism blur El anarquismo y el minarquismo se difuminan L’anarchisme et le minarchisme se brouillent O anarquismo e o minarquismo se confundem Der anarchismus und der minarchismus verschwimmen The argument from morality El argumento de la moral L’argument de la morale O argumento da moralidade Das argument der moral The case for free immigration, the case against borders El caso de la inmigración libre, el caso contra las fronteras Les arguments en faveur d’une immigration libre, les arguments contre les frontières O caso da imigração livre, o caso contra as fronteiras Der fall für freie einwanderung, der fall gegen grenzen The decline and fall of private law in Iceland El declive y la caída del derecho privado en Islandia Le déclin et la chute du droit privé en Islande O declínio e queda do direito privado na Islândia Der niedergang und fall des privatrechts in Island The decline of morality in the west La decadencia de la moral en occidente Le déclin de la moralité à l’ouest O declínio da moralidade no oeste Der niedergang der moral im westen The end of the end-means dichotomy El fin de la dicotomía de los medios del fin La fin de la dichotomie de fin signifie O fim da dicotomia final significa Das ende des endes bedeutet dichotomie The ethics of voluntaryism La ética del voluntariado L’éthique du volontariat A ética do voluntariado Die ethik des freiwilligendienstes The Fed’s grasping invisible hand La mano invisible de la Reserva Federal La main invisible de la Fed A mão invisível do Fed Die Fed greift nach unsichtbarer hand The fundamentals of voluntaryism Los fundamentos del voluntariado Les fondamentaux du volontariat Os fundamentos do voluntariado Die grundlagen des freiwilligendienstes The gold standard El estándar de oro L’étalon-or O padrão ouro Der goldstandard The immorality of the state La inmoralidad del estado L’immoralité de l’état A imoralidade do estado Die unmoral des staates The law La ley La loi A lei Das gesetz The libertarian immigration conundrum El enigma de la inmigración libertaria L’énigme de l’immigration libertaire O dilema da imigração libertária Das libertäre einwanderungsproblem The magical trillion dollar coin La moneda mágica de billones de dólares La pièce magique de mille milliards de dollars A moeda mágica de trilhões de dólares Die magische billionen-dollar-münze The meaning of Nagasaki El significado de Nagasaki La signification de Nagasaki O significado de Nagasaki Die bedeutung von Nagasaki The myth of the rule of law El mito del estado de derecho Le mythe de l'état de droit O mito do estado de direito Der mythos der rechtsstaatlichkeit The myth of the social contract El mito del contrato social Le mythe du contrat social O mito do contrato social Der mythos vom gesellschaftsvertrag The nature of law La naturaleza de la ley La nature du droit A natureza da lei Die natur des gesetzes The origin of government authority El origen de la autoridad gubernamental L’origine de l’autorité gouvernementale A origem da autoridade governamental Der ursprung der regierungsbehörde The pluralism of liberty El pluralismo de la libertad Le pluralisme de la liberté O pluralismo da liberdade Der pluralismus der freiheit The power in money El poder en el dinero Le pouvoir en argent O poder do dinheiro Die macht im geld The prince El príncipe Le prince O príncipe Der prinz The private justice alternative La alternativa de la justicia privada L’alternative de justice privée A alternativa da justiça privada Die alternative zur privaten justiz The production of security La producción de seguridad La production de sécurité A produção de segurança Die produktion von sicherheit The real curriculum of “public” education El currículum real de la educación “pública” Le véritable curriculum de l’éducation “publique” O currículo real da educação “pública” Der eigentliche lehrplan der “öffentlichen” bildung The rule of law without the state El estado de derecho sin el estado L’état de droit sans l’état O estado de direito sem o estado Rechtsstaatlichkeit ohne staat The sacred green cow La sagrada vaca verde La vache verte sacrée A vaca verde sagrada Die heilige grüne kuh The second question La segunda pregunta La deuxième question A segunda questão Die zweite frage The shell La cáscara La coquille A concha Die schale The state El estado L’état O estado Der staat The state: Human parasite El estado: Parásito humano L’état: Parasite humain O estado: Parasita humano Der staat: Menschlicher parasit The stateless society La sociedad sin estado La société apatride A sociedade apátrida Die staatenlose gesellschaft The stateless society strikes back La sociedad apátrida contraataca La société apatride riposte A sociedade apátrida ataca Die staatenlose gesellschaft schlägt zurück The state’s education monopoly increases prices and destroys choice El monopolio educativo del estado aumenta los precios y destruye las opciones Le monopole de l’état sur l’éducation fait augmenter les prix et détruit le choix O monopólio da educação do estado aumenta os preços e destrói a escolha Das staatliche bildungsmonopol erhöht die preise und zerstört die wahlmöglichkeiten The statist mindset of anarchists La mentalidad estatista de los anarquistas La mentalité étatiste des anarchistes A mentalidade estatista dos anarquistas Die statistische denkweise der anarchisten The stone mover El motor de piedra Le déménageur de pierre O movedor de pedra Der steinmacher The theology of statism La teología del estatismo La théologie de l’étatisme A teologia do estatismo Die theologie des statismus The tragedy of political government La tragedia del gobierno político La tragédie du gouvernement politique A tragédia do governo político Die tragödie der politischen regierung The trouble with bureaucracy El problema con la burocracia Le problème avec la bureaucratie O problema com a burocracia Das problem mit der bürokratie The true history of ethics La verdadera historia de la ética La vraie histoire de l’éthique A verdadeira história da ética Die wahre geschichte der ethik The truth about anarchism La verdad sobre el anarquismo La vérité sur l’anarchisme A verdade sobre o anarquismo Die wahrheit über den anarchismus The unprotected class La clase desprotegida La classe non protégée A classe desprotegida Die ungeschützte klasse The voluntaryist spirit El espiritu voluntario L’esprit bénévole O espírito voluntário Der freiwillige geist The war prayer La oración de guerra La prière de guerre A oração de guerra Das kriegsgebet The why of homeschool El porqué de la educación en el hogar Le pourquoi de l’école-maison O porquê do homeschool Das warum der homeschool The world’s biggest oxymoron El oxímoron más grande del mundo Le plus grand oxymore du monde O maior oxímoro do mundo Das größte oxymoron der welt There’s no government like no government No hay gobierno como ningún gobierno Il n’y a pas de gouvernement comme aucun gouvernement Não há governo como nenhum governo Es gibt keine regierung wie keine regierung These cages are only for beasts Estas jaulas son solo para bestias Ces cages sont réservées aux bêtes Essas gaiolas são apenas para animais Diese käfige sind nur für bestien This is a government war Esta es una guerra del gobierno Ceci est une guerre gouvernementale Esta é uma guerra do governo Dies ist ein regierungskrieg Thomas Sowell on politicians Thomas Sowell sobre los políticos Thomas Sowell sur les politiciens Thomas Sowell sobre políticos Thomas Sowell über politiker Thoughts on punishment Pensamientos sobre el castigo Réflexions sur la punition Pensamentos sobre punição Gedanken zur bestrafung Time to divorce marriage and government Hora de divorciarse del matrimonio y el gobierno Il est temps de divorcer du mariage et du gouvernement Hora de se divorciar do casamento e do governo Zeit, sich von ehe und regierung scheiden zu lassen Travel and labour should be peaceful Los viajes y el trabajo deberían ser pacíficos Les voyages et le travail doivent être pacifiques Viagens e trabalho devem ser pacíficos Reisen und arbeit sollten friedlich sein Truth or illusion Verdad o ilusión Vérité ou illusion Verdade ou ilusão Wahrheit oder illusion Understanding religion as child abuse Entendiendo la religión como abuso infantil Comprendre la religion comme un abus envers les enfants Entendendo a religião como abuso infantil Religion als kindesmissbrauch verstehen Utilities Utilidades Utilitaires Utilidades Dienstprogramme Vectorisr Vectorisr Vectorisr Vectorisr Vectorisr Vices are not crimes Los vicios no son crímenes Les vices ne sont pas des crimes Vícios não são crimes Laster sind keine verbrechen Videos Videos Videos Videos Videos Voice Memos Voice Memos Voice Memos Voice Memos Voice Memos Vote Nobody Votar Nadie Votez Personne Votar em Ninguém Stimmen sie Niemanden ab War Guerra Guerre Guerra Krieg War is a racket — made by government La guerra es una raqueta — hecha por el gobierno La guerre est une raquette — faite par le gouvernement A guerra é uma raquete — feita pelo governo Krieg ist ein schläger — von der regierung gemacht Weather Weather Weather Weather Weather Web Web Web Web Web What are first principles? ¿Qué son los primeros principios? Quels sont les premiers principes? Quais são os primeiros princípios? Was sind erste prinzipien? What are the myths of socialism? ¿Cuáles son los mitos del socialismo? Quels sont les mythes du socialisme? Quais são os mitos do socialismo? Was sind die mythen des sozialismus? What are the myths of statism? ¿Cuáles son los mitos del estatismo? Quels sont les mythes de l’étatisme? Quais são os mitos do estatismo? Was sind die mythen des statismus? What does libertarian mean? ¿Qué significa libertario? Que signifie libertaire? O que significa libertário? Was bedeutet libertär? What has government done to our money ¿Qué ha hecho el gobierno a nuestro dinero? Qu’est-ce que le gouvernement a fait à notre argent O que o governo fez com o nosso dinheiro Was hat die regierung mit unserem geld gemacht? What is anarchism? [01/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [01/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [01/14] O que é anarquismo? [01/14] Was ist anarchismus? [01/14] What is anarchism? [02/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [02/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [02/14] O que é anarquismo? [02/14] Was ist anarchismus? [02/14] What is anarchism? [03/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [03/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [03/14] O que é anarquismo? [03/14] Was ist anarchismus? [03/14] What is anarchism? [04/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [04/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [04/14] O que é anarquismo? [04/14] Was ist anarchismus? [04/14] What is anarchism? [05/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [05/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [05/14] O que é anarquismo? [05/14] Was ist anarchismus? [05/14] What is anarchism? [06/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [06/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [06/14] O que é anarquismo? [06/14] Was ist anarchismus? [06/14] What is anarchism? [07/14] ¿Qué es el anarquismo? [07/14] Qu’est-ce que l’anarchisme? [07/14] O que é anarquismo? [07/14] Was ist anarchismus? [07/14] What is anarcho–capitalism? What is anarcho–communism? What is authoritarian capitalism? What is authoritarian socialism? What is authority? ¿Qué es la autoridad? Qu’est-ce que l’autorité? O que é autoridade? Was ist autorität? What is centrism? ¿Qué es el centrismo? Qu’est-ce que le centrisme? O que é centrismo? Was ist zentrismus? What is communism? What is conservatism? What is corporatism? What is democratic socialism? What is exploitation? ¿Qué es la explotación? Qu’est-ce que l’exploitation? O que é exploração? Was ist ausbeutung? What is fascism? What is Georgism? What is international socialism? What is liberalism? What is libertarian capitalism? What is libertarian socialism? What is Marxism? What is minarchism? What is mutualism? What is national socialism? What is neo–conservatism? What is neo–liberalism? What is progressivism? What is property? ¿Qué es la propiedad? Qu’est-ce que la propriété? O que é propriedade? Was ist eigentum? What is social democracy? What is socialism? What is syndicalism? What is the free market? ¿Qué es el mercado libre? Qu'est-ce que le marché libre? O que é o mercado livre? Was ist der freie markt? What is the proper way to study man? ¿Cuál es la forma correcta de estudiar al hombre? Quelle est la bonne façon d’étudier l’homme? Qual é a maneira correta de estudar o homem? Was ist der richtige weg, um den menschen zu studieren? When is government a legitimate authority? ¿Cuándo es el gobierno una autoridad legítima? Quand le gouvernement est-il une autorité légitime? Quando o governo é uma autoridade legítima? Wann ist die regierung eine legitime autorität? Who’s really being naive? ¿Quién es realmente ingenuo? Qui est vraiment naïf? Quem está realmente sendo ingênuo? Wer ist wirklich naiv? Who’s the Scrooge? Libertarians and compassion ¿Quién es el Scrooge? Libertarios y compasión Qui est le Scrooge? Libertariens et compassion Quem é o Scrooge? Libertários e compaixão Wer ist der Scrooge? Libertäre und mitgefühl Why this spek? ¿Por qué este spek? Pourquoi ce spek? Por que esse spek? Warum diese spek? Without firing a single shot Sin disparar un solo tiro Sans tirer un seul coup Sem disparar um único tiro Ohne einen einzigen schuss abzugeben You don’t own me No me tienes Tu ne m'appartiens pas Você não é meu dono Du besitzt mich nicht You don’t own other people No eres dueño de otras personas Vous ne possédez pas d’autres personnes Você não possui outras pessoas Sie besitzen keine anderen personen

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